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... more 10.000 glossed keywords and links to more than 100 figures and schemes, about 100 tables etc. can be obtained in addition to this limited INTERNET version either on CD-ROM or in modified design as book by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA

ABA >>> abscisic acid

abaxial - stammabgewandt adj: the surface of a leaf facing away from the axis or stem of a plant, as opposed to adaxial bot

aberration - Aberration f, Störung f, Fehlverhalten n: variation of chromosome structure caused by induced or spontaneous mutations; in general, a nontypical form or function cyto; in microscopy, failure of an optical or electron-optical lens to produce exact geometric (and chromatic) correspondence between an object and its image micr

aberration rate - Aberrationsrate f: the portion of chromosomal changes as compared to normal chromosomes cyto

aberrant - aberrant, gestört adj: having uncommon characteristics or not strictly true to the phenotype gene

abiotic - abiotisch adj: factors or processes of the nonliving environment (climate, geology, atmosphere)

abjection - Abnabeln n: the separating of a spore from a sporophore or sterigma by a fungus bot

abjunction - Abtrennung f: the cutting off of a spore from a hypha by a septum bot

ablastous: without germ or bud bot

abnormal - unnormal adj: unusual variance from the natural habit

abort - Abort m: to fail in the early stages of formation; the collapse or disappearance of seeds or cells bot

abortive - fehlerhaft, unfruchtbar adj: defective or barren bot

abortive infection - abortive Infektion f: when pathogenic microorganisms fail to become established in the tissue of the host phyt

aboveground biomass >>> biomass

abscise - abwerfen v: separate by abscission, as a leaf from a stem bot

abscisic acid (ABA) - Abszisinsäure f: a growth regulator or plant hormone such as auxins, gibberellins, or cytokinins; it occurs in various tissues and seeds; the substance is thought to play an important role in the regulation of certain aspects of seed growth and development, as well as being involved in fruit growth, rejection of plant organs such as leaves and fruits, and certain other physiological phenomena; regulatory mechanisms of ABA-dependent gene expression have been studied, e.g.,  using a vp1 (viviparous1) mutant of maize and abi (ABA-insensitive) mutants of >>> Arabidopsis thaliana, both of which showed reduced levels of seed dormancy and sensitivity to exogenous ABA for inhibition of germination; ABA biosynthesis is required for seed maturation and dormancy during seed development, while in vegetative tissues ABA is synthesized de novo mainly in response to drought and high salinity stresses; many genes as components of stress signalling pathways are induced by exogenous ABA in Arabidopsis and rice; ABA regulatory pathways are not completely independent; several Cor/Lea genes are in fact responsive to exogenous ABA, and their promoter sequences commonly contain ABRE (ABA responsive element); information on roles of ABA in the regulation of ABRE-containing genes under LT conditions is still limited in wheat and its related species; an ABA-insensitive, non-dormant line of common wheat, ‘EH47-1’, was derived from an ABA sensitive and dormant line, ‘Kitakei-1354’, a single dominant mutant by EMS (ethylmethan sulfonate) mutagenesis; embryos of the mutant line loose sensitivity to ABA during the later half process of seed maturation, while embryos of the parental line maintain the sensitivity even after maturity; comparative studies of freezing tolerance after cold acclimation and Cor/Lea gene expression between ‘Kitakei-1354’ and ‘EH47-1’ suggest that ABA sensitivity contributes to determine the basal level of freezing tolerance in wheat; additional results indicate that the two mutations of ABA sensitivity mainly affect developing seeds similar to Arabidopsis abi3 mutation; Arabidopsis abi3 , which is an ortholog of a maize vp1, has pleiotropic effects on seed maturation, regulation of sensitivity to ABA inhibition of germination, expression of some seed-specific genes, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and dormancy phys

abscisin(e) >>> abscisic acid

abscissa - Abszisse(nachse) f: in monovariable distributions the abscissa (x-axis) is used for plotting the trait, while the ordinate (y-axis) gives the frequencies stat

abscission - Abwurf m, Abwerfen n, Abstoßung f, Abszission f: rejection of plant organs (e.g., of leaves in autumn) bot phys >>> abscisic acid

absorbency: a measure of the loss of intensity of radiation passing through an absorbing medium meth

absorption - Absorption f: uptake of substances, usually nutrients, water, or light, by plant cells or tissue; in soil science, the physical uptake of water or ions by a (soil) substance phys; in microscopy, the interaction of light with matter, resulting in decreased intensity across entire spectrum or loss of intensity from a portion of the spectrum micr

absorption spectrum - Absorptionsspektrum n: a graph that shows the percentage of each wavelength of light absorbed by a pigment (e.g., chlorophyll) phys

absorptive - aufsaugend adj: the state or process of being absorbed

abundance - Abundanz f: the estimated number of individuals of a species in an area or population phyt

acantha: a spine, thorn, or prickle bot

acanthocarpous - stachelfrüchtig adj: a fruit showing prickles bot

acaricide - Akarizid n: a pesticide used to kill or control mites or ticks phyt

acarides - Milben f pl: related to the spider animals; more than 10,000 species are known; many species parasitically live on plants zoo phyt

acarpous: describes a plant that is sterile bot >>> sterile

acaudate - schwanzlos adj: not having a tail phyt

acauline - stengellos adj: not having a culm bot

accelerated aging test >>> aging test

acceleration - Akzeleration f, Entwicklungsbeschleunigung f: the time rate of change of velocity with respect to magnitude or direction phy

acceptor - Akzeptor m: an atom that receives a pair of electrons to form a chemical bond chem phys

accession - Probe f, Zugang m: a distinct sample of germplasm (cultivar, breeding line, population) that is maintained in a gene bank for conservation and evaluation; in order to represent the genetic variation of a sample, ideally 4,000 seeds are needed for genetically homogeneous lines and about 12,000 seeds for heterogeneous

accession number - Zugangsnummer, Proben~ f: a unique identifier assigned to each accession when it is registered within a gene bank

accessory bud - Beiknospe f, akzessorische Knospe f: buds that are at or near the nodes but not in the axils of leaves bot

accessory chromosome - Zusatzchromosom n: a chromosome that is present in addition to the normal chromosome complement cyto >>> B chromosome

accessory DNA - Zusatz-DNS f: surplus DNA present in certain cells or cell stages due to gene amplification gene

accidental host - Gelegenheitswirt m, Zufalls~ m: that type of host on which the pathogen or parasite lives only for a limited time; it has no particular importance for the reproduction of the pathogen or parasite phyt >>> host

accidental sample: a sampling technique that makes no attempt to achieve representativeness, but chooses subjects based on convenience and accessibility stat

acclimation >>> acclimatization

acclimatization - Akklimatisierung f, Akklimatisation f, Abhärtung f: changes involving the synthesis of proteins, membranes, and metabolites that occur in a plant in response to chilling or freezing temperatures that protect tissues or confer tolerance to the cold phys

acclimatized - akklimatisiert, abgehärtet adj: a state of physiological adjustment by plants to changed environmental or stress conditions phys

http://www.plantstress.com

accommodation - Anpassung f: the act of adjusting the eye to bring objects that are closer to the eye into focus micr

accumbent: used to describe the first sprouts of an embryo when they lie against the body of the seed bot

accumulation center - Häufungsgebiet n: an area where a great deal of variation of a given species or crop plant may be found, but which is not considered a center of origin

acellular - azellulär adj: describing tissue or organisms that are not made up of separate cells but often have more than one nucleus bot

acentric - azentrisch adj: chromosome, chromosome segments, or chromatids that show no centromere; applied to a chromosome fragment formed during cell division that lacks a centromere; this fragment is unable to follow the rest of the chromosomes in migration toward one or the other pole, as it has lost its point of attachment to the cell spindle cyto >>> Figure 11

acephalous - kopflos adj: not having a head phyt

acephate: a systemic insecticide that is used to control pests (e.g., aphids, scale, and thrips) phyt

acerose - nadelartig adj: needlelike and stiff, like pine needles bot

acervate - haufenförmig adj: growth in heaps or groups bot

acetabuliform - schalenförmig adj: saucerlike in form bot

acetaldehyde - Azetaldehyd n: a simple aldehyde that is a bridge product of alcoholic fermentation chem

acetate - Azetat n: a salt or ester of acetic acid chem

acetic acid (ethanoic acid) - Essigsäure f: a carboxylic acid, CH3COOH, and simple fatty acid; a final product of several fermentation, oxidation, or rot processes; plays a crucial role in energy metabolism chem

aceto-carmine staining - Karminessigsäure-Färbung f: used as a dye for staining of chromosomes; usually cells or tissues are prepared (fixation) for 12-24 hours with a mixture of alcohol and acetic acid (3:1) or alcohol, acetic acid, and chloroform after CARNOY; prior to squashing the material it is stained with aceto-carmine cyto micr >>> opuntia >>> CARNO’s fixative

acetone - Azeton n: a simple but most important ketone that is often used as a lipid solvent chem

aceto-orcein - Orzein-Essigsäure f: a fluid consisting of the dye orcein dissolved in acetic acid that is used in chromosome staining cyto micr

acetylation - Azetylierung f: introduction of an acetyl group into a compound chem phys

acetyl group - Azetylgruppe f: a chemical group that is added and taken off of histones, acetylation of histones allows transcription to occur, and deacetylation inhibits transcription chem biot

achene - Achäne f (einsamige Schließfrucht der Korbblütler), Nüßchen n: a small, usually single-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruit formed from a single carpel (e.g., the feathery achene of Clematis); variants of the achene include caryopsis, cypsela, nut, and samara bot

http://www.britishclematis.org.uk/botany.html

achiasmate - achiasmatisch adj: meiosis and/or chromosome pairing without crossing over and chiasma formation cyto >>> Figure 15

achlorophyllous - chlorophyllfrei adj: a plant or leaf without chlorophyll bot

achromat - Achromat-Objektiv n: a microscope objective corrected for axial chromatic aberration micr

achromatic - achromatisch, farblos adj: parts of the nucleus not stainable by common chromosome dyes cyto

achromatic aplanatic condenser - achromatisch-aplantischer Kondensor m: a well-adapted microscope condenser lens that is corrected for chromatic and spherical aberrations micr

achromatic lens (achromat) - achromatisches Objektiv n: a lens cluster whose foci and power are made the same for two wavelengths; the simplest achromat is a doublet that combines two single lenses with different dispersions and curvatures to achromatize the combination micr

achromatin - Achromatin n: that part of the nucleus that does not stain with basic dye cyto

A chromosome - A-Chromosom n: any of the standard chromosomes of a given genome cyto

achromycin - Achromyzin n: the trade name for tetracycline; an antibacterial antibiotic from Streptomyces spp. biot

acicular - nadelförmig adj: pointed or needle shaped bot

acicular leaf - Nadelblatt n: a pointed or needle-shaped leaf (e.g., in conifers) bot

acid phosphatase (Acph)  - saure Phosphatase f: an enzyme that is a member of hydrolases; because of its variability it is sometimes used as a biochemical marker in genetic studies chem gene

acid soil - saurer Boden m: specifically a soil with pH value < 7.0, which is caused by the presence of active hydrogen and/or aluminum ions; the pH value decreases as the activity of these ions increases agr

acid(ic) dye - saurer Farbstoff m: an organic anion that stains positively charged macromolecules and acts on protoplasm micr

acidity - Säurewert m, Azidität f: in soil science, a measure of the activity of the hydrogen and aluminum ions in wet soil, usually expressed as pH value; crop plants show specific requirements; some of them grow reasonably well on acid soils (e.g., cowpea—pH 5.0-7.0; oats, rye—pH 5.5-7.5; maize, sorghum, wheat—pH 6.0-7.5; barley—pH 6.5.-7.5; alfalfa—pH 7.0-8.0) agr

acidophilic - säureliebend adj: in cytology, having an affinity for acid stains (eosinophilic) cyto; in ecology, thriving in or requiring an acid environment eco

acidophilous >>> acidophilic

acinaceous - bekörnt adj: consisting of or full of kernels bot

acinaciform - bohnenförmig adj: shaped like a scimitar (e.g., the shape of the pods of some beans) bot

aconitase (Aco) - Akonitase f: an enzyme (dehydratase) that catalyzes the production of iso-citric acid from citric acid; because of its variability it is sometimes used as a biochemical marker in genetic studies chem gene

acorn - Eichel f: the nonsplitting, one-seeded fruit of, for example, an oak tree bot

acquired character - erworbene Eigenschaft f: a nonheritable modification of structures or functions impressed on an individual by environmental influences during its development gene >>> modification

acquired immunity - erworbene Immunität f: an immunity that may be induced by means of preimmunization phyt

acquired resistance - erworbene Resistenz f: plant resistance to a disease activated after inoculation of the plant with certain microorganisms or treatment with certain chemical compounds phyt

acre - Morgen m (als Flächenmaß): 1 acre = 0.4047 ha = 4,840 square yards = 10 square chains; 640 acres = 1 square mile (also called a section)

acreable: in terms of an acre or per acre agr

acreage - Anbaufläche f: extent or area in acres agr >>> Table 48

acridine - Akridin n: a chemical that is capable of causing frameshift mutations in the DNA sequence; several derivatives of acridine, such as acridine orange, are used as dyes or biological stains chem gene cyto >>> fluorescence staining >>> mutagen

acridine orange - Akridinorange (Farbstoff) n: an acridine dye that functions as both a fluorochrome and a mutagen micr cyto gene >>> fluorescence staining >>> mutagen

acrocarpic - gipfelfrüchtig, akrokarp adj: fruits and/or seeds are formed on the top of a stem of a plant bot

acrocarpous >>> acrocarpic

acrocentric - akrozentrisch adj: the centromere is present on the end or close to the end of a chromosome cyto >>> Figure 11

acropetal - akropetal adj: toward the apex; the opposite of basipetal bot

acrosyndesis - Akrosyndese f: incomplete end-to-end chromosome pairing cyto

actinomycin - Aktinomyzin n: an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces chrysomallus that prevents the transcription of mRNA micr cyto >>> tetracycline

activator - Aktivator m: in enzymology, a proteinlike substance that is able to stimulate developmental processes phys; in molecular biology, a protein upstream from a gene on which the DNA binds; it activates the transcription of the gene gene

active collection - aktive Kollektion f, ~ Sammlung f: a collection of germplasm used for regeneration, multiplication, distribution, characterization, and evaluation; ideally germplasm should be maintained in sufficient quantity to be available on request; it is commonly duplicated in a base collection and is often stored under medium- to long-term storage conditions meth

active immunity - aktive Immunität f: all means and reactions that enable a plant to prevent an interaction with a pathogen phyt

active ingredient - aktive Substanz f: in any pesticide product, the component that kills or controls target pests phyt >>> active substance

active site - aktiver Ort m: that portion of an enzyme where the substrate molecules combine and are transformed into their reaction products phys

active substance - aktiver Wirkstoff m: pesticides, herbicides, etc., are usually mixtures of different substances; among them the active substance is the most important one as it attacks the pathogen phyt >>> active ingredient

active transport - aktiver Transport m: the passage of substances across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient that requires energy phys

activity rhythm - Aktivitätsrhythmus m: an individual’s daily pattern of physiological activity phys

acyclic - azyklisch adj: not cyclic; in botany, an acyclic flower bot; in chemistry, of or pertaining to a chemical compound not containing a closed chain or ring of atoms chem

adaptability - Anpassungsfähigkeit f: the potentiality for adaptation; the ability of an individual or taxon to cope with environmental stress; the range and extent of reaction is genetically determined phys

http://www.plantstress.com

adaptable - anpassungsfähig adj: capable of being adapted or able to adjust oneself readily to different environmental conditions phys >>> adaptability

adaptation - Anpassung f: the process of changes of an individual’s structure, morphology, and function that makes it better suited to survive in a given environment phys

adapted race >>> physiological race

adaptedness - Angepaßtheit f: the state of being adapted phys

adapter - Adapter m: synthetic double-stranded oligonucleotide; specific type of linker, usually the one blunt and one sticky end; applied to attach sticky ends to a blunt-ended DNA molecule biot

adaptive - adaptionsfähig, adaptiv adj: changes of a plant that act to preserve its full development phys

adaptive capacity: the genetically set range or flexibility of reactions of a plant and/or population enabling it to respond in different ways to differing conditions eco gene

adaptive character - Anpassungsmerkmal n: a functional or structural characteristic of an organism that enables or enhances the probability of survival and reproduction gene

adaptive reaction - Anpassungsreaktion f >>> adaptive capacity

adaptive selection: the evolution of comparable forms in separate but ecologically similar areas eco gene evol

adaptive trait >>> adaptive character

adaptive trials: multilocational coordinated field experiments across the crop-growing regions in one or more countries that test adaptation of varieties or breeding strains under specific ecological conditions meth

adaptive value - adaptiver Wert m: a measure of the reproductive efficiency of an organism or genotype compared with other organisms or genotypes gene >>> selective value

adaptiveness >>> adaptedness

adaptivity >>> adaptability

adaxial - stammzugewandt adj: toward the axis syn ventral bot >>> abaxial

addition line - Additionslinie f: a cell line or line of individuals carrying chromosomes or chromosome arms in addition to the  normal standard chromosome set cyto

additive effects (of genes)  - additive Effekte m pl: gene action in which the effects on a genetic trait are enhanced by each additional gene, either an allele at the same locus or genes at different loci gene >>> Tables 6, 20, 21

additive genes - additive Gene n pl, additiv wirkende Gene n pl: gene interaction without dominance (if allele), or without epistasis (if nonallele); the expression of any genetic trait is enhanced to the simple sum of the individual genetic or allelic effects contributing to that character gene >>> Tables 6, 20, 21

additive variance (VA) - additive Varianz m: the proportion of the genetic variance due to additive effects stat

adelphogamy - Adelphogamie f, Geschwisterbestäubung f: sib pollination or pollination involving a stigma and pollen belonging to two different individuals that are vegetatively derived from the same mother gene >>> Picture 013

adenine (A) - Adenin n: a purine base that occurs in both DNA and RNA chem gene

adenine sulfate - Adeninsulphat n: a growth factor used in some tissue culture media biot

adenose - drüsenbehaftet, drüsenförmig adj: having glands or glandlike organs bot

adenosine - Adenosin n: the nucleoside formed when adenine is linked to ribose sugar chem gene

adenosine diphosphate (ADP) - Adenosindiphosphat (ADP) n: high-energy phosphoric ester (nucleotide) of the nucleoside adenosine that functions as the principal energy-carrying compound in the living cell phys

adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - Adenosintriphosphat (ATP) n: high-energy phosphoric ester (nucleotide) of the nucleoside adenosine that functions as the principal energy-carrying compound in the living cell phys >>> mitochondrion

adhesion - Adhäsion f: the molecular attraction between substances causing their surfaces to remain in contact meth

adjacent distribution - adjazente Verteilung f: the orientation and distribution of adjacent chromosomes in the ring or chain configuration of translocation heterozygotes cyto >>> Figure 15

adjacent segregation: a reciprocal translocation heterozygote in which during meiosis the segregation of a translocated and a normal chromosome  happens together, giving unbalanced gametes with duplications and deficiencies leading to nonviable zygotes; adjacent segregation is of two kinds depending on whether nonhomologous (adjacent-1) or homologous (adjacent-2) centromeres segregate together; adjacent-1 segregation is the usual type of adjacent segregation and adjacent-2 segregation is rare cyto

adjacent-1 segregation: segregation of nonhomologous centromeres during meiosis in a reciprocal translocation heterozygote such that unbalanced gametes with duplications and deficiencies are produced, as opposed to alternate segregation and adjacent-2 segregation cyto

adjacent-2 segregation: segregation of homologous centromeres during meiosis in a reciprocal translocation heterozygote such that unbalanced gametes with duplications and deficiencies are produced, as opposed to alternate segregation and adjacent-1 segregation cyto

adosculation: the fertilization of plants by pollen falling on the pistils bot

adpressed - angedrückt, angelegt adj: lying flat against (e.g., the rachilla against the palea in the grain of, e.g., barley and oats) bot

adsorption - Adsorption f: the physical binding of a particle of a particular substance to the surface of another by adhesion or penetration phy; attachment of phage to host bacterium (e.g., phage lamda adsorbs to a maltose binding protein) biot >>> lamda phage

adsorption complex - Adsorptionskomplex m: the various substances in the soil that are capable of adsorption (e.g., clay or humus) agr

adspersed - weitverbreited adj: to have a wide distribution; scattered bot

adult - adult, erwachsen adj: having attained full size and strength; mature phys

adult resistance - Altersresistenz f, Stadien~ n: resistance not expressed at the seedling stage; it increases with plant maturity phyt

adult stage >>> adult

adulthood >>> adult stage

aduncate - hakenförmig (gekrümmt) adj: hooked, crooked, and bent bot

advance crop >>> forecrop

advanced character - verbesserte Eigenschaft f: a feature that shows a real deviation from the ancestral trait or type (e.g., an agronomic trait such as brittle rachis)

adventitious - adventiv adj: growing from an unusual position (e. g., roots from a leaf or stem) bot >>> Figure 28

http://rootgenomics.missouri.edu

adventitious bud - Adventivknospe f, ~sproß m: a bud appearing in an unusual place (e.g., a bud on leaves) bot

adventitious embryony - Adventivembryonie f: a condition in a seed in which the embryo arises from somatic rather than reproductive tissue; the development of a diploid embryo from nucellary or integumentary tissue (sporophyte tissue); common in certain grasses and often results in multiple embryos bot >>> twin seedling >>> Figure 28

adventitious plant - Adventivpflanze f: an individual that arises from somatic rather than reproductive tissue bot

adventitious root - Adventivwurzel f: arising from any structure other than a root, e.g., from a node of a stem or from a leaf; the phenomenon is quite common in triticale and wheat; the adventitious root development is probably the response to accumulation of auxins in the base of the plant; sometimes this accumulation occurs because the plants are waterlogged and the existing roots system is no longer a sink for the auxins due to lack of oxygen and/or dying off of the roots bot >>> Figure 48

http://rootgenomics.missouri.edu

adventive: a plant that has been introduced but is not yet naturalized agr

aeolian soil - aeolischer Boden f: a type of soil that is transported from one place to another by the wind agr

aerating tissue >>> aerenchyma

aeration - Belüftung f, Durchlüftung f: bringing air into a substance, tissue, or soil (e.g., by earthworms or digging and turning the soil to loosen) phys agr

aerator: any implement that is used for breaking up compacted soil to facilitate air and gas exchange agr

aerenchyma - Aerenchym n, Durchlüftungsgewebe n: plant tissue containing large, intercellular air spaces bot

aerial pathogens: antagonistic microorganisms that inhibit numerous fungal pathogens of aerial plant parts (e.g., Tilletiopsis spp. parasitize the cucumber powdery mildew fungus Spaerotheca fuligena); present in crop soils and exert a certain degree of biological control over one or many plant pathogens phyt >>> biological control

aerial pest control - aviochemische Schädlingsbekämpfung f: pest control by utilization of aircraft and helicopters in order to be more efficient, to prevent damages of the crop, or to cope with difficult landscape and soil conditions phyt

aerial root - Luftwurzel f: in some epiphytic orchids, the leaves and the shoot axis are reduced or missing; then flatted and green roots take over the fixation of the plant and the function of the leaves (photosynthesis) bot

http://rootgenomics.missouri.edu

aerial shoots - Luftsprosse m pl,oberirdische ~  m pl: shoots growing high above the ground (e.g., trees, bushes, etc.) bot

aerobe - Aerobier m, Aerobiont m: an organism needing free oxygen for growth bot

aerobium >>> aerobe

aerosol - Aerosol n: a colloidal substance that is suspended in the air phyt

aesculin >>> glucoside

afflux - Zustrom m, Zufluß m: the act of flowing to or toward some point or organ in a plant phys

afforest - aufforsten v: converting bare or cultivated land into forest eco

afforestation - Aufforstung f: the establishment of forest by natural succession or by the planting of trees on land where they formerly did not grow eco

affymetrix genechip arrays: high-density oligonucleotide microarrays; they are manufactured using a photolithographic technology with up to 500,000 oligos being synthesised on a single chip; the system allows to measure the relative concentration of a DNA or RNA sequence in a complex mixture of nucleic acids; they can be used (a) to monitor global mRNA abundance in a range of species; (b) to identify genes that are uniquely expressed in samples of normal or mutated tissue, (c) to investigate changes in gene expression associated with environmental or other changes, (d) to identify putative functions for uncharacterized ESTs, or (e) to identify gene expression ‘fingerprints’ of efficiency and toxicity biot

aflatoxin - Aflatoxin n: one of a group of mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus phys

AFLP >>> amplified fragment length polymorphisms >>> random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique

after-harvest cultivation: any discing or ploughing of the land after harvesting which will incorporate crop seed from the crop residue into the soil so that subsequent deterioration will prevent the seed from volunteering in the following crop agr meth

after-ripening - Nachreife f: a term for the collective changes that occur in a dormant seed that make it capable of germination; it is usually considered to denote physiological changes seed

agameon - Agameon n: a plant species reproducing exclusively by apomixis bot

agamete - Agamet m: any nonreproducing germ cell bot

agamic - agam(isch) adj: reproducing asexually bot

agamic complex - agamer Komplex m: it refers to hybrids or their derivatives that are partially or entirely reproduced by asexual seed formation bot

agamogenesis - Agamogenese f: any reproduction without the male gametes bot

agamogony - Agamogonie f, Fortpflanzung ohne Befruchtung f: a type of apomixis in which cells undergo abnormal meiosis during megasporogenesis, resulting in a diploid embryo sac rather than the normal haploid embryo sac bot >>> Figure 28

agamont - Agamont m: an asexual individual in whose agametangia the agametes are formed bot

agamospecies - Agamospecies f: populations morphologically differentiated from one another and reproducing apomictically bot >>> Figure 28

agar - Agar n: a complex polysaccharide obtained from certain types of seaweed (red algae); when it is heated with water and subsequently cooled to about + 45°C, it forms a gel prep

agar culture - Agarkultur f: cells, organs, tissue, or embryos artificially grown on a solid medium composed of agar together with certain nutrients, hormones, etc. biot

agar gel - Agargel n: gels for electrophoresis that were produced from agar prep

agar medium >>> agar culture

agar-agar >>> agar

agarose (starch) gel - Agarose(stärke)gel n: an inert matrix used in electrophoresis for the separation of nucleic acids based on their size or conformation; the molecules are visualized in the gel by ultraviolet fluorescence of ethidium bromide, which is either included in the gel or in the running buffer or used to stain the gel after electrophoresis prep

AG complex - AG-Komplex m: the complete set of factors assumed to be responsible for the formation of sexual organs bot

agent - Agens n (Agentien n pl): a natural force, object, or substance producing or used for obtaining specific results prep

http://www.plantstress.com

agglomerate - Agglomerat n: in biotechnology, a mass of cells clustered together biot; in soil science, rock composed of rounded or angular volcanic fragments agr

agglutinate - Agglutinat n, agglutinieren v: fixed together as if with glue prep

agglutination - Agglutination f, Verklumpung f, Verklebung f: the clumping of cellular components prep

agglutinin - Agglutinin n: any antibody capable of causing clumping of types of cells prep

agglutinogen - Agglutinogen n: an antigen that causes the production of agglutinins chem biot

aggregate - Aggregat n: in soil science, a cluster of soil particles forming a pad agr

aggregate fruit - Sammelfrucht f: a fruit development from several pistils in one flower, as in strawberry or blackberry bot >>> composite fruit

aggressiveness - Aggressivität f: the ability of a pathogen to infect a plant, to break its resistance, to become a parasite on a plant, or to use a host plant for reproduction; the degree of aggressiveness can be estimated only when a pathogen meets a resistant host; when the aggressiveness copes with the resistance of the host it is termed virulence phyt

aging test - Alterungsprüfung f, ~test m: a method to originally evaluate seed storability; it subjects unimbibed seeds to conditions of high temperature (+ 41°C) and relative humidity (~100 %) for short periods (three to four days); the seeds are then removed from the stress conditions and placed under optimum germination conditions; the two environmental variables cause rapid seed deterioration; high vigor seed lots will withstand these extreme stress conditions and deteriorate at a slower rate than low vigor seeds seed

agnesis: the absence of development bio phys

agriculture - Landwirtschaft f: the science of transforming sunlight energy into plant and animal products that can be utilized in humans; the selective breeding of crop and farm animals has had an enormous impact on productivity in agriculture; modern varieties of crop plants have increased nutritional value and resistance to disease; recent developments in genetic engineering have enabled the potential use of transgenic organisms in agriculture to be explored ag

Agrobacterium rhizogenes: a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped soil bacteria, often harboring large plasmids, called Ri plasmids. It can cause a tumorous growth known as hairy root disease in certain plants bot biot >>> Figure 27

Agrobacterium tumefaciens: a species of soil bacteria that can infect the stem of many plants and form crown gall tumors when it contains a Ti plasmid bot biot >>> Figure 27

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation - Agrobacterium-vermittelte Transformation f: Agrobacterium is the generic name of a soil bacterium that frequently causes crown gall in many plant species; besides A. rhizogenes, A. tumefaciens is one species that is most used in DNA transfer by manipulating the Ti (tumor inducing) plasmid, which is harbored by these bacteria biot >>> Figure 27 >>> Agrobacterium rhizogenes >>> Agrobacterium tumefaciens

http://rootgenomics.missouri.edu

agrobiology - Agrobiologie f: the scientific study of plant life in relation to agriculture, especially with regard to plant genetics, cultivation, and crop yield agr bio

agroinfection - Bodeninfektion f: infection of plants via soilborne pathogens phyt

agronomist - Landwirt m, Agronom m: the person who is doing farm management and organizes and/or realizes the production of field crops agr

agronomy - Landwirtschaft f: the part of agriculture devoted to the production of crops and soil management; the scientific utilization of agricultural land agr

air layering: a method of plant propagation in which roots are induced to form around a stem; a very narrow strip of bark is removed from around the branch or stem; a sliver of wood can be inserted into the cut to keep it open; a bundle of moist sphagnum moss is tied securely around the cut area; the moss must remain moist and the roots of the plant somewhat dry; new roots will sprout from the incision; the new plant is then cut off below the moss, potted and kept in a humid atmosphere until it is established bot

airlock - pneumatische Schleuse f, Luftschleuse f: an airtight chamber permitting passage to or from a space seed

air screen cleaner - Luft-Siebreiniger m: the basic piece of equipment for cleaning seed, utilizing airflow and perforated screens seed

akaryotic - akaryotisch adj: without a nucleus; a stage in the nuclear cycle before meiosis in which no or little chromatin is seen in the nucleus cyto

akinete >>> akinetic

akinetic - akinetisch adj: a nonmotile reproductive structure (e.g., a resting cell) cyto

alanine (Ala) - Alanin n: an amino acid present in almost all proteins chem

alate - geflügelt adj: winged bot

albido - Albido n: the white tissue beneath the peel of citrus bot

albinism - Albinismus m: in plants, a deficiency of chromoplasts bot

albino - Albino m, Weißling m: a plant lacking chromoplasts bot

albumen: starchy and other nutritive material in a seed, stored as endosperm inside the embryo sac, or as perisperm in the surrounding nucellar cells; in general, any deposit of nutritive material accompanying the embryo phys >>> endosperm >>> albumin(e)

albumin(e) - Albumin n, Eiweiß n: any of certain proteins soluble in distilled water at neutral or slightly acid pH and in dilute aqueous salt solution; they coagulate by heat (e.g., leucosins in cereal grains, ricin in rice, or legumelins in pulse seeds, which are mainly enzymes) chem >>> Table 15

albuminoid - eiweißartig adj: containing or resembling albumen or albumin bot

albuminous seed - Eiweißsamen m: a seed having a well-developed endosperm or perisperm seed >>> Table 15

alepidote - glatt adj: having no scales of scurf, smooth bot

aleurodid >>> whitefly

aleuron(e) - Aleuron n: a granulated protein that forms the outermost layer of a cereal grain bot >>> aleuron(e) grain >>> Table 15

aleuron(e) grain - Aleuronkorn n: small protein grains present in cells of storage tissue bot

aleuron(e) layer - Aleuronschicht f: a layer of cells below the testa of some seeds (e.g., cereals), which contains hydrolytic enzymes (e.g., amylases and proteases) for the digestion of the food stored in the endosperm; the production of enzymes is activated by gibberellins when the seed is soaked in water prior to germination bot

aleuroplast - Aleuroplast m: a leucoplast in which protein granules are present as a main storage product bot

alien addition line - Fremd(chromosom)additionslinie f: a line of plants with one or more extra chromosomes of an alien species cyto

alien chromosome - Fremdchromosom n: a chromosome from a more or less related species transferred to a crop plant cyto

alien chromosome transfer - Fremdchromosomenübertragung f, ~transfer m: cytogenetic methods that facilitate the transfer of individual chromosomes from one species to another meth cyto

alien gene transfer - Fremdgenübertragung f, ~transfer m: the transfer of genes between species or genera by different means gene biot

alien germplasm - Fremdkeimplasma n: genes introduced from a wild relative or nonadapted species cyto gene

alien substitution line - Fremd(chromosom)substitutionslinie f: a line of plants in which one or more alien chromosomes from a certain donor species replace one or more chromosomes of a recipient species cyto

A line - A-Linie f: the seed-bearing parent line used to produce hybrid seed that is male sterile; in wheat hybrid seed production, a male-sterile parent line used to produce hybrid seeds and hence the seed-producing parental line seed >>> Figure 2

aliquot - Aliquot n: a part, such as a representative sample, that divides the whole without a remainder; two is an aliquot of six because it is contained exactly three times; loosely it is used for any fraction or portion prep

alkali - Alkali n: a substance capable of furnishing hydroxyl-OH ions to its solution; the most important alkali metals are potassium and sodium chem

alkaline phosphatase - alkalische Phosphatase f: an enzyme that is a member of hydrolases; it cleaves from linear DNA or RNA molecules the 5'-terminal phosphate group; dephosphorylated 5' DNA or RNA ends cannot be joined by ligase to 3' ends; polynucleotide kinase reverses the reaction; sometimes used as a biochemical marker in genetic studies phys biot gene

alkaline soil - basischer Boden m: specifically a soil with pH value > 7.0 caused by the presence of carbonates of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium; commonly used for soils showing a pH value 8.5 agr

alkaloid - Alkaloid n: one of a group of basic, nitrogenous, normally heterocyclic compounds of a complex nature; alkaloids occur in several plants (e.g., coniine in hemlock, morphine in poppy fruits, strychnine in seeds of Strychnos nux vomica, atropine in nightshades, colchicine in meadow saffron, caffeine in coffee and tea, nicotine in tobacco leaves, theobromine in cacao) chem phys

alkaloidity - Alkaloidgehalt m: the alkaloid content of cell, tissue, organs or individuals of plants phys

alkylating agent: a chemical agent that can add alkyl groups (e.g., ethyl or methyl groups to another molecule; many mutagens act through alkylation) chem

alkylresorcinol(s): phenolic, amphiphilic lipids present at levels of up to 0.15 % of whole grain of, e.g., wheat and rye; little is known about their presence in food, absorption in animals and humans, and their in vivo biological effects; because alkylresorcinols are present in the human diet in significant amounts only in products containing whole grain wheat or rye, they have potential to be biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake; a rapid gas chromatographic method is available to analyze alkylresorcinols in whole cereal grains; wheat, rye and triticale all contain moderate to high amounts of alkylresorcinols (300-1500 µg/g), while barley contains low amounts (~50 µg/g); in these cereals, alkylresorcinols are present in the bran fraction; all other cereals (rice, oats, maize, sorghum and millet) do not contain any detectable amounts of alkylresorcinols; an extraction method using hot propanol:water was able to recover all alkylresorcinols from experimental breads, indicating that alkylresorcinols are not destroyed during baking; the absorption of alkylresorcinols in rats, pigs and humans was determined, with values for absorption ranging from 34-79 % phys >>> biomarkers

allele - Allel n: one of two or more alternate forms of a gene occupying the same locus on a particular chromosome; currently, different alleles of a given gene are usually recognized by phenotype rather than by comparison of their nucleotide sequences gene >>> allelism

allele frequency - Allelfrequenz f, ~häufigkeit f: a measure of the commonness of an allele in a population of alleles gene >>> allele

allele shift - Allelverschiebung f: a modification of allele frequency in a population due to either natural or artificial selection gene

allele-specific associated primers (ASAP): a PCR variant in which the sequence of the deca-mer oligo is derived from normal RAPD, which generated an absence and/or presence polymorphism; these polymorphisms do not require electrophoretic separation of the sample; the presence of an amplification product is detected by measuring fluorescence of ethidium-bromide stained DNA (Gu et al., 1995) biot

allele-specific oligo (ASO): a special kind of oligo for an AC-PCR reaction; the sequence of the oligo is designed in such a way to allow and/or inhibit hybridization at the spot where the mutant (resistant) allele differs from the wild-type (susceptible) allele biot

allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR): refers to amplification of specific alleles or DNA sequence variants at the same locus; specificity is achieved by designing one or both PCR primers so that they partially overlap the site of sequence difference between the amplified alleles; variants of this technique have been described under different names such as RAPD, AP-PCR, or DAF (DNA amplification finger printing); the base on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which involves randomly synthesized short oligo-nucleotide sequence as primers; these primers are specific to the ends of a given sequence in the DNA of a plant; genetic differences between individuals can be detected when the size of the segment of DNA bracketed by the primers is different; the bracketed region can be isolated and purified, so that restriction mapping and sequencing is possible; these markers are known as randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers that do not involve southern analysis and radioactive labeling; randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers are therefore, cheaper and easier to use than RFLP and AFLP markers; however, RAPDs are very sensitive to laboratory conditions, are usually dominant markers, are potentially population specific, and show low level of polymorphism with PCR amplification using single random primer biot

allele trend - alleler Trend m: a directed change in allele frequency of populations per time unit gene

allelic complementation - Allelkomplementierung f: the production of a nonmutant phenotype when two independent mutations at the same gene locus, but on different homologous chromosomes, are introduced gene

allelism - Allelie f: the common shortening of the term “allelomorphism”; one of the two or more forms of a gene arising by mutation and occupying the same relative position (locus) on homologous chromosomes gene

allelobrachial - allelobrachial adj: changes of chromosome structure in which the arms of homologous chromosomes are included cyto

allelogenous - allelogen adj: females that produce only males or only females in different progenies bot

allelomorph - Allelomorph n: a term that is commonly shortened to “allele” gene >>> allele

allelopathy - Allelopathie f: it refers to the release into the environment by an organism of a chemical substance that acts as a germination or growth inhibitor to another organism; economic and environmental constraints of crop production systems have stimulated interest in alternative weed management strategies; allelopathy offers potential for selective biological weed management through the production and release of allelochemicals from leaves, flowers, seeds, stems, and roots of living r decomposing plant materials; actually, the term allelopathy refers to biochemical interactions among plants, including those mediated by icroorganisms; this broad definition of allelopathy is appropriate because considerable research has indicated the involvement of icroorganisms and lower plants in production of phytotoxins; a variety of allelochemicals have been identified,  including the phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and glucosinolates; allelopathic inhibition typically results from the combined action of a group of allelochemicals which, collectively, interfere with severe physiological processes; allelopathy is strongly coupled with inherent stresses of the crop environment, including insects and disease, temperature extremes, nutrient and moisture variables, radiation, and herbicides; these stress conditions often enhance allelochemical production, thus increasing the potential for allelopathic interference eco phyt

http://www.plantstress.com

allelotype - Allelotyp m: the genetic composition (i.e., allele frequency) of a breeding population gene

alliaceous - zwiebelähnlich adj: onionlike in smell or form bot

allocompetition (intergenotype competition) - Intergenotyp-Nachbarschaftseffekt m: cultivation at high plant density implies the presence of strong interplant competition eco; the individual plants, clones, lines, or families are evaluated when being subjected to intergenotypic competition; also called intergenotype competition stat

allocycly - Allozyklie f: differences in chromosome coiling caused by environmental or genotypic effects cyto

allodiploid - allodiploid adj: cells or individuals in which one or more chromosome pairs are exchanged for one or more pairs from another species cyto

allogamous - allogam(isch) adj: cross-fertilizing in plants, as opposed to autogamous bot >>> Table 35

allogamy - Allogamie f, Fremdbefruchtung f, ~bestäubung f: cross-fertilization as opposed to autogamy bot >>> Table 35

allogene >>> recessive allele

allogenetic - allogenetisch adj: cells or tissues related but sufficiently dissimilar in genotype to interact antigenically phys

allogenic - allogen, allogenetisch adj: applied to successional change due to a change in abiotic environments eco

allograft - Fremdreis n,~ transplantat n: a graft of tissue from a donor of one genotype to a host of a different genotype but of the same species hort

allohaploid - allohaploid adj: a haploid cell or individual derived from an allopolyploid and composed by two or more different chromosome sets cyto >>> Figure 3

alloheteroploid - alloheteroploid adj: heteroploid individuals or cells whose chromosomes derive from various genomes cyto >>> Figure 3

alloiogenesis - Alloiogenese f: growth of a part of an organism in relation to the growth of the whole organism or some other part of it phys

allometric - allometrisch adj: growth in which the growth rate of one part of the plant differs from that of another part or of the rest of the plant bot

allometry >>> alloiogenesis

allopatric - allopatrisch adj: applied to species that occupy separate habitats and that do not occur together in nature (cf parapatric and sympatric) eco

allophene - Allophän n: a phenotype not due to the mutant genetic constitution of the cell or the tissue in question; such a cell or tissue will develop a normal phenotype if it is transplanted to a wild-type host gene

allophenic - allophän(isch) adj: characteristics that arise by intercellular gene action gene

alloplasmic - alloplasmisch, alloplasmatisch adj: an individual having the common nucleus, but an alien cytoplasm (e.g., alloplasmic rye containing a wheat cytoplasm); usually leads to meiotic disturbances and sterility gene

alloploid (allopolyploid) - alloploid adj: a plant that arises after natural or experimental crossing of two or more species or genera; they may contain genomes of the parents in one or more copies cyto >>> amphiploid >>> Figures 3, 88

alloploidy >>> alloploid >>> allopolyploid

allopolyploid - Allopolyploid(e) m, allopolyploid adj: plants with more than two sets of chromosomes that originate from two or more parents; the sets contain at least some nonhomologous chromosomes cyto >>> Figure 3 >>> Table 17

allopolyploidy >>> allopolyploid

allosome - Allosom n: a chromosome deviating in size, form, or behavior from the other chromosomes (autosomes), such as the sex chromosome or B chromosome cyto >>> heterochromosome

allosteric - allosterisch adj: an enzyme whose activity is altered when its structure is distorted by an organic compound at a nonsubstrate site phys chem

allosteric effect - allosterischer Effekt m: the binding of a ligand to one site on a protein molecule in such a way that the properties of another site on the same protein are affected chem

allosteric transition - allosterische Transition f: a change from one conformation of a protein to another conformation chem

allosubstitution - Allosubstitution f: the replacement of a chromosome or chromosome arm by an alien chromosome or chromosome arm cyto

allosynapsis >>> allosyndesis

allosyndesis - Allosyndese f: chromosome pairing of completely or partially homologous (homoeologous) chromosomes cyto

allotetraploid syn amphidiploid - allotetraploid adj: a plant that is diploid for two genomes, each from a different species cyto >>> Figure 8

allotetraploidy >>> allotetraploid

allotopic - allotop(isch) adj: a type specimen of the sex opposite that of the holotype bot; in immunology, an antibody that acts as an antigen to other antibodies of the same species that have variant molecular sites meth

allozygosity: homozygosity in which the two alleles are alike but unrelated gene

allozygote - Allozygote f: a zygote heterozygous for different mutant alleles gene

allozyme - Allozym n: isoenzymes of protein nature whose synthesis is usually controlled by codominant alleles and inherited by monogenic rations; they show a specific banding pattern if separated by electrophoresis phys >>> Table 29

alluvial soil - alluvialer Boden m: soils developed on fairly recent alluvium (a sediment deposited by streams and varying widely in particle size); usually they show no horizon development agr

alpha amylase: an enzyme that breaks down starch in germination grains; it splits starch molecules at random points, forming smaller molecules of widely varying size, e.g, the so-called dextrinizing enzyme of malt chem >>> falling number

alpha-bromonaphtalene - alpha-Bromnaphtalin n: a chemical agent that is used for artificial chromosome condensation; for several hours root tips are treated with a saturated water solution prior to staining cyto

alpha complementation (of beta-galactosidase) - alpha-Komplementierung f: pUC18 and similar vectors contain only a small part of the whole gene for beta-galactosidase; this small part gives rise to a truncated protein that forms an enzymatically active hetero dimer with a specific mutant beta-galactosidase biot

alpha helix - alpha-Helix f: the right-handed, or less commonly left-handed, coillike configuration of a polypeptide chain that represents the secondary structure of some protein molecules gene

alpha level >>> significance level

alpha lattice design: one of a class of incomplete block designs that cater for a wider range of numbers of entries than “square“ or “rectangular“ lattices stat

alternate - alternierend adj: not opposite to each other on the axis, but borne at regular intervals at different levels (e.g., of leaves) bot

alternate host >>> alternative host

alternate segregation - alternierende Verteilung f: at meiosis in a reciprocal translocation heterozygote, the segregation of both normal chromosomes to one pole and both translocated chromosomes to the other pole, giving genetically balanced gametes, or segregation of centromeres during meiosis in a reciprocal translocation heterozygote such that genetically balanced gametes are produced cyto

alternating dominance - alternierende Dominanz f: a change of dominance from one allele to the other (A1a2 a1A2) of a pair of alleles during ontogenetic development of a heterozygous hybrid; the phenotypic expression of the alleles acts one after another gene

alternation of generation - Generationswechsel m: the alternation of two or more generations, reproducing themselves in different ways (i.e., alternation of gametophyte [sexual reproductive] and sporophyte [asexual reproductive] stages in the life cycle of a plant) bot

alternative disjunction - alternierende Verteilung f: the distribution of interchange chromosomes at anaphase I of meiosis is determined by their centromere orientation; in the case of alternative disjunction, chromosomes located alternatively in the pairing configuration are distrubuted to the same spindle pole, as opposed to adjacent disjunction cyto >>> adjacent disjunction >>> translocation

alternative host - Wechselwirt m: a host that harbors a pest or disease while the primary host is absent or out of season phyt >>> host

altimeter >>> hypsometer

Alu element - Alu-Element n: a repetitive DNA element approximately 300 base pairs long that is abundantly dispersed throughout the genome of primates; the name derived from the AluI restriction enzyme cleavage site that is within most Alu elements biot

aluminum (Al) - Aluminium n: has no specific importance in the metabolism of higher plants; small amounts of uptake favor the imbibition of the cytoplasm; higher concentrations in the soil may cause severe inhibition of plant growth; aluminum tolerance is a main task of plant breeding in several regions of the world chem phys agr >>> Table 33

alveograph: dough-testing instrument for measuring the extensibility and resistance to stretching of dough, thereby providing a prediction of baking quality; as a standard disc of dough is blown into a bubble, pressure change and bursting pressure are charted versus time meth

AMBA >>> American Malting Barley Association

amber codon - amber-Kodon n: amber suppresser mutation that changes anticodon of amino acid-carrying tRNA to UAG biot

ambisexual - ambisexuell adj: a plant that has the reproductive organs of both sexes bot >>> bisexual

ambivalent gene - ambivalentes Gen n: genes with both advantageous and disadvantageous effects gene

ambosexual >>> ambisexual

amplicon: a cloned by >>> PCR amplified DNA sequence biot

 

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amplimer: PCR-amplified segment of the genome (including STSs and ESTs) biot

amylograph: an instrument used to determine change of viscosity with time in a heated mixture of water and a starchy material such as flour meth

amylolytic enzymes: those enzymes that hydrolyze starches and similar glucose polymers chem

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anastomsis: natural grafting that can occur in either stems or roots, e.g., mango seeds contain both a nucellar embryo and a normal embryo that is the result of open-pollination; trees growing from casually discarded seeds often consist of two trunks joined at the base by anastomosis; one trunk is the nucellar seedling and is identical to the maternal parent, while the other is an open-pollinated variant and is visibly different in many characteristics, including fruit quality and resistance to parasites bot

ancient clone(s): the importance of ancient clones is that they provide proof of the durability of horizontal resistance; such clones may date from centuries, even millennia, ago; they are common in figs, olives, date palms, citrus, horseradish, garlic, ginger, turmeric, saffron, rhubarb, etc. hort

anthropochore: a wild plant or species dispersed as a result of accidental human activity eco

anthropochory: dispersal of wild plants, such as seeds or fruits, as a result of accidental human activity eco

antisense technique: a method of inhibiting the activity of a certaingene; the genetic information encoded by genes is conveyed with the help of the messenger RNA (>>> mRNA); messenger RNA moves to ribosomes sites of protein production; by antisense technique plants are transformed with reversed or "antisense" genes; when antisense genes are expressed, an mRNA molecule is produced that is a mirror image of the targeted gene; the two, opposite mRNAs bind to one another, disrupting their function and making protein synthesis impossible; in effect, the targeted gene is blocked; e.g., the antisense strategy has been used by plant breeders to block the synthesis of >>> amylose starch in potatoe biot meth

antitrypsin factors: chemicals found in certain grains and other food raw materials that hinder the digestive action of the enzyme trypsin; known to be present in >>> rye chem

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apex separator: a wheat cleaning machine using a travelling continuous mesh meth

appeal: refers to the process whereby a seed grower may request the officiala organization to reconsider the status of an inspected crop based on factors not given on the report of inspections; e.g., in Canada the Appeals Committee reviews the case and recommends a decision to the official organization; all cases brought to the Appeals Committee are considered anonymously and without bias seed

aromatic compound(s): compounds that contain at least one benzene ring in their structure, or compounds that have a fragrance or smell, usually restricted to those with pleasant odors chem

arrhenotoky - Arrhenotokie f: in insects (e.g., bees), the development of male progenies from nonfertilized eggs zoo

arrow: the inflorescence of sugarcane agr

arsenic - Arsen n: it may be found in plants in very low dosage; higher concentrations in soil may be toxic for plants chem agr

articulate - gegliedert adj: jointed; having a node or joint bot

artifact - Artefakt n: a human-made object; something observed that usually is not present but that has arisen as a result of the process of observation or investigation meth

artificial chromosome - künstliches Chromosom n: a chromosome experimentally created and constituted, in addition to genetically coding DNA sequences, by ligating origin of replication, autonomous replicating sequences, and telomeric and centromeric sequences biot

artificial light - künstliches Licht n: light other than sunlight; often from fluorescent tubes; used to grow plants in greenhouses or growing chambers usually out of season hort agr

artificial seeds - künstliche Samen m pl: based on embryogenic suspension cultures, embryos may be coated with water-soluble hygrogels and other substances in order to guarantee a proper germination even under field conditions seed biot

artificial selection - künstliche Selektion f: plant selection by human or agronomic means

artioploid - artioploid adj: it refers to polyploids with even sets of genomes cyto

ASAP >>> allele-specific associated primers

ascendent >>> ancestor

ascending - aufgerichtet adj: rising somewhat obliquely, or curved upward bot

ascogonium - Askogonium n: the female gametangium of some fungi bot

ascorbic acid - Askorbinsäure f: the water-soluble vitamin C that occurs in large quantities in fruits and vegetables chem phys

ascospore - Askospore f: a sexually produced, haploid spore formed within an ascus by some fungi bot

ascus - Askus m: a minute, baglike structure within which ascospores develop in some fungi bot

aseptic - aseptisch adj: free from living microorganisms or pathogens; sterile pre

asexual - ungeschlechtlich, asexuell adj: any reproductive process that does not involve the fusion of gametes bot >>> Figure 28

asexual reproduction - ungeschlechtliche Fortpflanzung f: a propagation without formation of zygotes by sexual organs and genetic recombination; in plants, there are two types of asexual reproduction: vegetative propagation (by stolons, rhizomes, tubers, tillers, bulbs, bulbils, or corms) and apomixis (by vegetative proliferation or agamospermy) bot >>> Figure 28

ASO >>> allele-specific oligo

AS-PCR >>> allele-specific PCR

asparagine (Asn) - Asparagin n: an amino acid found in storage proteins of plants (e.g., in peas and beans); the designation derived from the presence in asparagus chem phys

asparagus knife - Spargelmesser n: a tool for prying and pulling out long-rooted plants syn dandelion weeder syn fishtail weeder hort

aspartic acid (Asp) - Aspartinsäure n: an aliphatic, acidic, polar alpha-amino acid chem phys

aspirator - Windsichter m, Steig~ m, Aspirator m: an air-blast separator; a seed conditioning (cleaning) machine that uses air to separate according to specific gravity (weight) and resistance to air flow seed >>> Table 11

assimilation - Assimilation f: in plant physiology, the production of an organic substance from anorganic elements and compounds via photosynthesis phys >>> carbon dioxide

association mapping: a population-based survey of molecular marker analysis in order to identify trait-marker relationships based on linkage disequilibrium; the association between a pair of linked markers is also called linkage disequilibrium (LD) or, less frequently, gametic disequilibrium; however, association has a broader meaning that includes combinations of 3 or more linked markers, at least some of which are in LD; these combinations are called haplotypes if specified for as  ingle chromosome; the sex chromosomes in males and certain chromosomal aberrations are monosomic, with each individual carrying only 1 haplotype; with these exceptions (and some chromosomal aberrations) haplotypes occur in pairs, called diplotypes, consisting of 1 haplotype from each parent; the 2 haplotypes of a diplotype cannot be ascertained with certainty if 2 or more markers are heterozygous except in special cases that include family studies,physical separation of chromosomes, and zero frequency of alternative haplotypes; association mapping depends on the choice of map taken to represent LD; >>> physical maps specify distance in the DNA sequence, ideally measured in bp; the closest approach to this ideal is by the DNA sequence nominally finished, although errors in many relatively small areas remain and, of course, polymorphisms affecting the DNA sequence are represented by 1 arbitrary allele; for association mapping, it is convenient to represent location in kb to 3 decimal places, retaining full precision in the finished maps; two physical maps at lower resolution are derived from chromosome breakage in radiation hybrids, the utility of which is limited to organisms without a finished DNA sequence, and chromosome bands that project cytogenetic assignments to the physical map; at all levels of resolution, physical maps have the additivity that defines alinear map; thus, if the distance in the ith interval between 2 adjacent markers is di and if the intervals are mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive, the distance between any 2 markers is sum di, just as in any road map; >>> genetic maps also have additivity, but the distance in the ith interval is proportional to eidi, where ei is not a constant but an interval-specific scaling factor such that ei >/= 0, and not all ei are equal; the distance between any 2 markers if the intervalsare mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive is proportional to sum eidi; there are 2 types of genetic maps: (a) >>> linkage maps long antedated physical maps; their development began in 1913, when A. H. STURTEVANT (1891-1970) elaborated the concept of linear arrangementof genes separated by crossing-over; in 1919, J. B. S. HALDANE (1892-1964) introduced the MORGAN unit (w) as the length of a chromatid that on averagehas experienced one crossover event per meiosis, thereby taking wi = eidi/t as his measurement of distance, where t is the number of generations observed; until recently, linkage maps have been estimated directly from recombination, since values of ei = wi/di could not be determined with accuracy until the physical map was finished; in contrast, LD maps determine distance not from recombination, but from LD, and so distance in the ith interval is expected to be eidi = wit; the number of generations is large and can be reliably determined only from a population genetics model that allows ei to be estimated directly; whereas haplotype inference from diplotypes complicates association mapping, the 2 types of data provide virtually identical LD maps, meth biot >>> Figure 89

assortative mating - gerichtete Paarung f: occurs if the plants mating resemble each other, with regard to some traits gene >>> disassortive mating

ASTA: American Seed Trade Association org

asymmetric fusion - asymmetrische Fusion f, ~ Verschmelzung f: a cell formed by the fusion of dissimilar cells; referred to as a heterokaryon biot >>> cell fusion

asynapsis - Asynapsis f: chromosomes of meiosis I in which pairing either fails or is incomplete cyto

asynaptic >>> asynapsis

asyndesis >>> asynapsis

atavism - Atavismus m, Rückschlagsentwicklung f: the reappearance of a character after several generations; the reversion to an ancestral or earlier type of character; the character being the expression of a recessive gene or of complementary genes bio

atomizer: machine for adding water to grain in finely divided spray meth

atrazine: a selective herbicide, widely used on maize cropping; it is environmentally significant, since it was the second most commonly detected pesticide residue in an Environmental Protection Agency survey of drinking water wells conducted during 1988-1990; due to concerns about groundwater contamination and worker exposure, EPA is conducting a special review of atrazine registration phyt

atrophy - Atrophie f: reduced or diminished organ size, shape, or function, usually a deteriorate change bot phys

atropine - Atropin n: a poisonous crystalline alkaloid, C17H23NO3, it can be extracted from deadly nightshade and other solanaceous plants; used in medicine to treat colic, to reduce secretion, and to dilate the pupil of the eye chem phys

attractant: a chemical or agent that lures insects or other pests by stimulating their sense of smell; attractants are a nontoxic technique for luring insects into traps and are heavily used in orchard crops; though distinct from toxic baits, attractants are regulated as pesticides phyt

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autoecious: the converse of heteroecious, which means that a rust or an aphid is obliged to change its species of host in order to complete its life cycle; an autoecious rust is one that completes its entire life cycle on one species of host; entomologists use the term “monoecious” in place of autoecious when describing aphids; in botany, monoecious means that separate male or female flowers occur on a single plant phyt >>> dioecious >>> hermaphodite

AVRDC: Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center

awn - Granne f: the bristlelike projection arising from the top of the glume and lemma (e.g., in barley, the top of the lemma in wheat and from the back of the lemma in oats) bot >>> germination >>> Figure 34

awned >>> aristate

axenic: a pure culture of one species; it implies that cultures are free of microorganisms biot >>> aseptic

axil: the angle between the upper surface of a leaf and the stem that bears it bot

axil placentation: the type of ovule attachment within a fruit in which the seeds are attached along the central axis at the junction of the septa bot

axillary: in or related to the axis bot

axillary bud: develops in the axil of a leaf; the presence of axillary buds distinguishes a leaf from a leaflet bot

axillary bud proliferation:  propagation in culture using protocols and media which promote axillary (lateral shoot) growth; a technique for mass production (micropropagation) of plantlets in culture, achieved primarily through hormonal inhibition of apical dominance and stimulation of lateral branching biot

axillary shoot: shoot formed axillary to the primary shoot meristem bot phys

axillary tiller: a tiller may form a bud located at the coleoptilar node (coleoptilar tiller) and at each crown node (axillary tiller); the coleoptilar tiller can emerge at any time, independent of the number of leaves on the main stem; axillary tillers usually begin to emerge when the plant has three leaves; rarely are more than five axillary tillers formed on a cereal plant bot

axis (of cereal plants): the stem or central column upon which other parts are borne; in general, the central part of a longitudinal support on which organs or parts are arranged bot

5-azacytidine: a drug that may activate the expression of rRNA genes by reduction of their methylation level biot

azotobacter: bacteria living in soil and water that are able to bind and incorporate atmospheric nitrogen into their cells bio agr

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