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TABLE 1: Classification of wheats (Triticum ssp.)

TABLE 2: Number of gametes, genotypes and phenotypes considering one and multifactorial heterozygosity in F1 and F2 generations

TABLE 3: Segregation of recessive nulliplex genotypes from triplex, duplex and simplex genotypes considering selfing, random chromosome distribution and complete dominance

TABLE 4: Expected F2 segregations of trisomic F1 plants from a critical cross of trisomic by disomic, excluding any selection, male transmission of n+1 gametes and abnormal chromosome segregation

TABLE 5: Basic methods of plant breeding

TABLE 6: Genotypic and phenotypic segregation in F2 populations considering two genes and interacting in different manners

TABLE 7: Frequencies and ratios of completely recessive in F2 progeny of doubled haploids, diploids and tetraploids

TABLE 8: Genome relationships between embryo, endosperm and ovary after crossing parents  with different ploidy levels

TABLE 9: Genetic segregation patterns depending on the number of genes involved (* when complete dominance)

TABLE 10:  Frequencies of homozygotes and heterozygotes in a progeny of a heterozygous individual  after subsequent self-pollinations

TABLE 11: Examples of seed conditioning in some crop plants

TABLE 12: Taxonomic classification system in plants

TABLE 13: Decimal code for plant growth in cereals

Table 14: Genome relationships of oats (Avena ssp.)

TABLE 15:  The approximate protein composition in some cereals

TABLE 16: Food reserves of some crop plants

TABLE 17: Taxonomic relationships of some tuberous Solanum  ssp.

TABLE 18: Types of  flowers in higher plants

TABLE 19:  Segregation of a single gene and/or alleles in subsequent generations

TABLE 20:  Phenotypic relations of homozygotes and heterozygotes depending on different dominance levels in diploids

TABLE 21: Phenotypic ratios in F2 generation for two unlinked genes depending on the degree of dominance at each locus and epistasis between loci

TABLE 22:  Calculation of recombination frequency between two loci from a cross between AaBb x aaaa

TABLE 23:  Test crosses with monosomics in order to determine the location of a dominant allele

TABLE 24:  Possible planting arrangements for a diallel crossing (six parents, no reciprocal cross, no self-pollination)

TABLE 25:  A randomized complete-block design for 5 entries and 10 replications

TABLE 26:  Lattice design (42 entries, 3 replications, no blocks within the replication, entries are assigned at random to the 42 plots)

TABLE 27:  Recovering of genes from recurrent parent during backcrossing

TABLE 28: Scheme of seed purification and increase

TABLE 29: Types and characteristics of several markers in breeding and genetics

TABLE 30: Typical characters for identification of wheat, barley or wild oat

TABLE 31:  Taxonomy of the genus Helianthus

TABLE 32: About the evolution of Triticeae

TABLE 33: Inheritance and variation  of several breeding characters

TABLE 34: Some examples of  heritability of  breeding characters

TABLE 35:  Proposed breeding schemes depending on the crop, reproduction system and basic population features

FIGURE 1: Basic scheme of selection in mutation breeding

FIGURE 2: Main steps of establishment of a hybrid variety in wheat

FIGURE 3: Development of allopolyploid (amphidiploid) hybrids, e.g. a wheat-rye hybrid (octoploid triticale)

FIGURE 4: Residue seed method of breeding, half-sib progeny selection or method of overstored seeds

FIGURE 5: Single-plant selection including testing of progeny in autogamous plants

FIGURE 6: Inheritance and segregation patterns in subsequent generations of flower colour from a cross of a red-flowered with a white-flowered plant, and with dominant inheritance of red flowers

FIGURE 7: Pedigree breeding (cross-combination breeding) in autogamous plants

FIGUR 8: Some diploid and allopolyploid species of the genus Brassica with agricultural  and breeding importance

FIGURE 9: Experimental field design of a Latin square considering four variants and four replications (4 blocks, 4 columns) and a Latin rectangle considering 10 variants

FIGURE 10: The phylogeny of wheat (Triticum ssp.)

FIGURE 11: Types of chromosome and/or centromere constrictions

FIGURE 12: The karyogram of diploid rye, Secale cereale L.

FIGURE 13: Pairing failure of meiotic chromosomes as interlocked configuration

FIGURE 14: Different types of trisomics in plants

FIGURE 15: A diagrammatic representation of different meiotic chromosome configurations observed in diakinesis and metaphase including the minimum chiasmata

FIGURE 16: Combination breeding by using the bulk method

FIGURE 17: A comparison of the genetic segregation patterns of sexually derived and doubled-haploid derived F2 progenies from F1 heterozygotes

FIGURE 18: Schematic interpretation of ‘dominance hypothesis’ considering inbred lines and F1 hybrid

FIGURE 19: Schematic drawing of topcross design including progeny testing for general combining ability

FIGURE 20: Schematic drawing of a recurrent selection design

FIGURE 21: Schematic drawing of a reciprocal recurrent selection design

FIGURE 22: Schematic drawing of hybrid seed production in maize

FIGURE 23: Schematic drawing of hybrid seed production after and utilisation of cytoplasmic male sterility

FIGURE 24: Schematic drawing of unequal crossing-over

FIGURE 25: Schematic drawing of embryo sac and pollen formation

FIGURE 26: Breeding scheme using doubled haploids

FIGURE 27: Schematic drawing of Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer

FIGURE 28: Different ways of asexual reproduction in plants

FIGURE 29: Hybrid seed production in allogamous rye

FIGURE 30: Designs of spreader nurseries

FIGURE 31: Basic crossing schemes in plant breeding

FIGURE 32: Schematic drawing of honeycomb and grid designs

FIGURE 33: Several types of hill plots

FIGURE 34: Basic shapes and types of spikes in wheat

FIGURE 35: Schematic drawing of sexual organs of a plant flower

FIGURE 36: Types of duplicated chromosome segments

FIGURE 37: Schematic drawing of aneuploid types in wheat and applicable to other diploids and polyploids

FIGURE 38: Estimation of heritability h2  based on selection advantage ‘R’, selection coefficient ‘S’ and selection intensity ’ i’

FIGURE 39: Schematic drawing of mass selection and single-plant selection

FIGURE 40: Schematic drawing of positive mass selection

FIGURE 41: Couple method of breeding  in allogamous plants

© by R. Schlegel 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019