Table 32
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Divergence

~ Million years ago

Earliest land plant fossils

420

Origin of angiosperms

200-340

Monocot-dicot divergence

160-240

Origin of grass family

65-100

Oldest known grass fossils

50-70

Divergence of the subfamilies 

50-80

Pooideae (wheat, barley, oat)

 

Bambusoideae (rice)

 

Panicoideae (maize, sorghum)

 

Earliest fossil of the rice lineage

40

Divergence of maize and sorghum lineages

15-20

Divergence of wheat and barley lineages

10-14

Divergence of wheat and rye lineages

7

Note:

Panicoideae diverged from the Pooideae-Bambusoideae first, followed shortly by divergence of the latter two subfamilies, or authors suggest that either the Pooideae or the Bambusoideae branched off first. In general, it seems that all 3 subfamilies diverged about the same time. Some phylogenies divide Bambusoideae into two subfamilies, Oryzoideae and Bambusoideae.

Recently, it was found that the gene, Hm1 (in maize), is present in all grasses since shortly after their evolutionary origin and protects them from the fungus Cochliobolus carbonum Race 1 (CCR1),  PNAS, USA 105: 1762-1767 (2008)

TABLE 32: About the evolution of Triticeae

© by R. Schlegel 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

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