Current List of Wheats with Rye Introgression
After the first reports on spontaneous wheat-rye chromosome substitutions 5R(5A) by Katterman (1937), O'Mara
(1946) and Riley and Chapman (1958), during the past three decades particularly, 1R(1B) substitutions and 1RS.1BL translocations were described in more than 200 cultivars of wheat
from all over the world (Blüthner and Mettin 1973; Mettin et al. 1973; Zeller 1972; Zeller 1973; Zeller and Fischbeck 1971). Their most
important phenotypic deviation from common wheat cultivars is the so-called wheat-rye resistance, i. e. the presence of wide-range resistance to races of powdery mildew and rusts (Bartos
and Bares 1971; Zeller 1973), which is linked with decreased breadmaking quality (Zeller et al. 1982), good ecological adaptability and yield performance (Rajaram et al.
1983; Schlegel and Meinel 1994). The origin of the alien chromosome was intensively discussed by genetic and historical reasons. It turned out that basically four
sources exist - two in Germany (it might be one source, see Schlegel and Korzun 1997), one in the USA and one in Japan. The variety 'Salmon' (1RS.1BL) is a representative of the latter
(Tsunewaki 1964) and the variety 'Amigo' (1RS.1AL) is a representative of the penultimate group (Beronsky et al. 1991; The et al. 1992), while almost all remaining
cultivars can be traced back to one or to the other German origin (Zeller 1973; Blüthner and Mettin 1977). There was no doubt so far that the Japanese and
the American derivatives differ from one another and from the German sources. Although on two places of Germany - Salzmuende near Halle/S (breeder: Riebesel)
and Weihenstephan near Munich (breeder: Kattermann) - wheat-rye crosses were already carried out since the twenties and thirties and independent pedigrees
could be fragmentally reconstructed by the few reports left (Blüthner 1992), some authors presumed only one German source (Lein 1975; Moonen and Zeven 1984; Schlegel and
Korzun 1997). For breeding programmes additional recombination within the translocated 1RS arm of rye and between the different wheat
genetic backgrounds is wished (Müller et al. 1991a; Lutz et al. 1992).