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International Organizations & Institutes

AMBA (American Malting Barley Association, Inc.  740 N. Plankinton Avenue, Suite 830 Milwaukee, WI 53203-2403)

AOSA (Association of Official Seed Analysts)

AOSCA (Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies): it was established in 1919 in the United States of America; it establishes minimum standards for genetic purity and identity and recommends minimum standards for seed quality; its goal is to standardize certification regulations and procedures internationally so companies compete under one set of standards org

ASTA (American Seed Trade Association)

Australian Wheat Board (AWB): a statutory marketing agency, which handles Australia’s domestic marketing of wheat and export marketings of wheat and flour; under the Australian system, farmers take their wheat to elevators designated as official handling agents for the board; following delivery, farmers receive an initial payment, then over a period of time they receive additional payments until the full price has been paid; AWB becomes a grower-owned and controlled company operating under Australian corporation laws org

AVRDC (Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center)

CAAS (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science)

CGIAR (Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research); an informal association of 58 public and private sector members supporting 16 international agricultural research centers; the centers develop advanced breeding material for adoption and use by national agricultural research systems in developing countries; under its auspices are the institutes as follows: CIAT, CIMMYT, CIP, ICARDA, ICRISAT, IITA, IRRI; a group of donors established the CGIAR in the early 1970s to fund agricultural research around the world; it does this via 16 International Agricultural Research Centers, which now call themselves “Future Harvest” centers comprising more than 8,500 scientists and support staff working in more than 100 countries; the CGIAR is the biggest institutional force guiding research and development for the crops that feed people in the South; as government funding is drying up, the CGIAR is increasingly looking to partnerships with industry to keep itself alive org

CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia); responsible for dwarf beans, cassava, forage crops

CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico DF, Mexico); responsible for wheat, maize,  barley, triticale

CIP (Centro Internacional de al Papa, Lima, Peru); responsible for potato, sweet potato

FAO (The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations); it  was founded in 1945 with a mandate to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity, and to better the condition of rural populations; today, it is one of the largest specialized agencies in the United Nations system and the lead agency for agriculture, forestry, fisheries and rural development; as an intergovernmental organization, FAO has 183 member countries plus one member organization, the European Community; since its inception, FAO has worked to alleviate poverty and hunger by promoting agricultural development, improved nutrition and the pursuit of food security - defined as the access of all people at all times to the food they need for an active and healthy life; food production has increased at an unprecedented rate since FAO was founded in 1945, outpacing the doubling of the world’s population over the same period; since the early 1960s, the proportion of hungry people in the developing world has been reduced from more than 50 %  to less than 20 %; despite these gains, however, more than 790 million people in the developing world - more than the total population of North America and Western Europe combined - still go hungry; a specific priority of the organization is encouraging sustainable agriculture and rural development, a long-term strategy for increasing food production and food security while conserving and managing natural resources. The aim is to meet the needs of both present and future generations by promoting development that does not degrade the environment and is technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable


CSSA (Crop Science Society of America) EUCARPIA (European Association for Research on Plant Breeding)

FAO/IAEA (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria); responsible for the utilization of nuclear energy in agriculture and food industry

FIS (International Federation of Seed Trade)

IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria)

IBPGR (International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Roma, Italy); coordinating international plant conservation, now renamed IPGRI

ICARDA (International Center of Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria); responsible for wheat, durum wheat, barley, faba beans, lentil, chickpeas, alfalfa

ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature)

IGFRI (Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, India); established in 1962; a national Institute under the administrative control of Indian Council of Agricultural Research, is mandated to conduct basic, strategic, applied and adaptive research, development and training in forage production and it's utilization; with more than 30 years of experience in forage research and development, IGFRI today stands as the premier R&D institution in South Asia for sustainable agriculture through quality forage production for improved animal productivity


IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria); responsible for groundnut, soya, sweet potato, cassava, cowpea, rice

INRA (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Versaille, France);  the National Institute of Agronomic Research was created in 1921 as Institute of Agronomic Research (IRA), on the site of Noisy-le-Roi (France) under the directorship of Emile SCHRIBAUX; the function of the station was outlined in a report dated the 25th October 1923; the constitution of collections, a storehouse of specialized scientific documentation, experimentation on varieties in collaboration with other regional stations, obtention of new varieties ("Noisy was the test field for foreign varieties and the birthplace for hybrids of wheat and oats released by the central station, novel varieties that can be found today in all the regions of France and who start to find their place in our possessions in North Africa"); in 1929, under the directorship of L. ALABOUVETTE the station was transferred to Versailles (France); from its creation the station attached importance to bringing together complete as possible collections of wheat, oats, potato; in 1930, beet was added to these species and two new branches (varieties identification and the study of new varieties with “a register of plants obtained by selection“); a catalogue of wheat varieties was published in 1932 and Pierre JONARD established in 1936 a classification of tender wheat (froment) with the aid of grain and blade characteristics; later the number of species grew: tomato, asparagus, apples, and pears in 1936; those species became objects of important collections, of descriptive studies, of varietal trials and of selection; recently, maize and wheat are the main subjects of research and breeding; after 1945, the country was not self sufficient for food; the plants studied principally then became forage, to restart the cultivation of animals and field crop plants (wheat, barley, oats, beetroot, potatoes, maize, canola (rape), turnips); in 1947, Andre CAUDERON was involved in an enormous task of collection and experimentation on maize coordinated by L. ALABOUVETTE; he selected F7 lines and F2 offspring of self-fertilizations of plants from a population originating in Lacaune; the lines were used to generate, many maize hybrids, such as “INRA258“ (258 being the number of days from sowing to harvest); with Xavier LASCOLS and then Michel CAENEN, A. CAUDERON developed a simple hybrid F7 x F2 as crossing partner of the North American lines to create productive, cold tolerant and relatively homogenous hybrids (double hybrids “INRA 200“ or three-way hybrids “INRA 260“); breeding on wheat, undertaken before 1945 by the C. CREPIN’s team in Dijon then at Versailles, ended in the creation of the variety “Etoile de Choisy“ (“Choisy Star“), in which productivity, precocity and cold resistance traits were associated for the first time; at once disseminated in the southwest of France, the Etoile de Choisy variety made fertilization profitable, and playing a big role in the revival of the region; the variety was successful not only in France but also in Southern Europe and USSR; a t the end of the 1950’s, rapeseed became a target of research at Versailles; the variety, “Sarepta“ (1956) showed way in taking “pure lines“ for improvement of rapeseed; this permit Jacques MOICE to subsequently substitute varieties without erucic acid for normal varieties; the variety “Primor“ (1973) became a new basis of this crop development; Versailles with the work of Yves DEMARLY on the genetics of tetraploids, Paul DOMMERGUES on mutagenesis and function of meristems, and Nicole MALA as well as Rene ECOCHARD on cytogenetics led the line “VPM1“, the offspring of intergeneric crosses, carrying resistance to root rot in modern varieties of wheat; since the 1960’s the research was decentralized to Clermont-Ferrand, Lusignan, Dijon, Rennes, Mons-en-Chaussèe; the work of Jean-Pierre BOURGIN and Jean-Paul NITSCH led to new approaches of in vitro anther culture; in asparagus, selection and crosses of individuals by Lucette CORRIOLS-THEVENIN and Claire DORE established high-performing and early varieties (double hybrids, e.g., variety “Larac“) and then simple hybrids of clones grace to the optimization of in vitro cloning (var. “Aneto“, “Desto“, “Steline); in vitro anther cloning permitted haploid, double homozygote, super males (YY) to be obtained and female (XX) plants in which crosses produced only male plants XY; the production of hybrid varieties was rapidly envisaged for endive culture; pollenic competition was used to to produce hybrid seeds of different varieties; Hubert BANNEROT’ work resulted in new hybrid varieties (“Zoom“, “Flash“, “Bea“, “Turbo“); more than 80% of French endive culture today is hydroponic, grown in the dark, in climate-controlled rooms; cytoplasmic male sterility, discovered in Japan by H. OGURA in radish (1968), permitted researchers to envisage the creation of hybrid varieties in Brassica; the transfer of male sterility was necessary for intergeneric crosses between radish and cabbage; Georges PELLETIER replaced chloroplasts of radish, the cause of the chlorosis, by those of cabbage; starting in 1968 programs were developed aiming at obtaining peas and beans of quality for the canning and frozen food industry; at the demand of producers, Lionel BOULIDARD created varieties of sauerkraut cabbage (“Septdor“, “Bouledor“, “Neuropa“) associating the productivity of Dutch varieties with the quality of Alsatian populations adapted to mechanical harvest and producing a quality sauerkraut; the station also made a large contribution to the improvement of flax, in association with the producers, for oil and fiber; studies on cold resistance ended in the creation of “Oliver“, a top variety of seed flax; in 1973, the embargo of USA on the soybean oil cake obliged all the countries of the EEC to seek substitute products rich in proteins; at Versailles, Roger COUSIN directed his research towards the improvement of proteinaceous pea; in 1973, the first variety of winter pea (“Frisson“) was added to the catalogue of varieties, followed by many other cultivars, such as “Frijaune“ or “Frilaine“; for spring pea varieties, the ideotype of the plant and the criteria for selection were defined; the results contributed to the development of a new type of pea “afila“ where the leaflets were replaced by tendrils (var. “Rafale“)


IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute), formerly IBPGR

IPK (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research), Gatersleben, Germany

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines); responsible for rice

ISTA (International Seed Testing Association)

ITMI (International Triticeae Mapping Initiative, Dundee, Great Britain); it  was conceived in 1989, originally as a five-year effort to develop RFLP maps for crops of the Triticeae, mainly wheat and barley; he mapping effort was organized around the seven homoeologous chromosome groups of the Triticeae for which coordinators were appointed; additional coordinated topics included related diploid genomes, genetics of abiotic stress resistance, and Triticeae informatics (database and RFLP probe repository); about 130 scientists are affiliated to ITMI


IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources)

James Hutton Institute; 2011 - 0n 1st April,2011,  the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, UK) joined with the Macaulay Land User Research Institute (MLURI, Aberdeen, UK) to form the James Hutton Institute; the mission is to deliver the highest quality integrated and innovative science that contributes knowledge, products and services to meet the multiple demands on land and natural resources


KWS; 1864 - the company was founded in Klein Wanzleben near Magdeburg, eastern Germany; 1900 - world leader in sugar beet breeding and marketing with branches, e.g.,  at Ukraine; 1920 - expansion to other crops: cereals, fodder beet, potato; 1945 - transfer to Einbeck (Germany) and a new start; since 1951 - further expansion to: corn, fodder, oil- and protein crops; since 1961 - establishment of subsidiaries in Europe and overseas; 1967/68  - merger of cereal breeding companies Heine Peragis and Lochow-Petkus; 1972 - initial use of biotechnology: establishment of a laboratory for cell and tissue culture; 1984 - founding of PLANTA with focus on biotechnology; 1990 - resumption of activities at the company’s initial location at Klein Wanzleben; 1995 - return to Ukraine: UNISEM in Vinnitsa; 1996 - turnover of KWS Group grows to more than 300 Mio US$; 1999 - inauguration of new biotechnology research center; KWS is one of the world’s leading plant breeding companies, with subsidiaries, associated companies and distributors in all the main markets of the temperate zone; products are seeds of sugar beet, corn and oil- and fodder crop varieties; it aims to develop new high-yield varieties suited to local conditions and with improved pest and disease resistance, to make more efficient use of fertilizers and to find alternative uses of plants


OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development); an international agency which, among other things, has developed specifications, procedures and standards for international seed certification among member countries seed org

Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., a DuPont company; is the world's leading developer and supplier of advanced plant genetics to farmers worldwide; headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa (USA), Pioneer develops, produces and markets a full line of top-quality seeds and forage and grain additives and provides services to customers in nearly 70 countries; Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., 400 Locust Street, Suite 800, PO BOX 14454 Des Moines, IA  50306-3454 (USA)


Plant Research International (PRI),  a Dutch organization specialized in strategic and applied research by combination of knowledge and experience in genetics and reproduction, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, bioinformatics, crop protection, crop ecology and agrosystems; it serves the entire agro-production chain with scientific products, from the DNA level to production system; 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands


SABRAO (Society for the Advancement of Breeding Research in Asia and Oceania); it aims to promote mutual understanding among its members and international exchange of breeding information, problems and progress; a major event to promote the aims of SABRAO is the quadrennial congress that is held in an Asian or Pacific country; in 1968, the 1st Congress was held in Tokyo (Japan) as a general assembly for establishing SABRAO; the second Congress of SABRAO held in Japan, 1989 had the theme "Breeding researches - the Key to Survival of the Earth", since breeding research was considered a key science for the 21st century

Scottish Crop Research Institute >>> James Hutton Institute

UPOV (Union pour la Protection des Obtentions Vegetales); it is an intergovernmental organization with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland; it is based on the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, as revised since its signature in Paris on December 2, 1961; on April 16, 1993, the Union consisted of 23 member States; the objective of the convention is the protection of new varieties of plants by an intellectual property right

USDA-ARS (United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service)

© by R. Schlegel 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019