Figure 10
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FIGURE 10b: The phylogeny of grasses (Gramineae)

Divergence

~ Million years ago

Earliest land plant fossils

420

Origin of angiosperms

200-340

Monocot-dicot divergence

160-240

Origin of grass family

65-100

Oldest known grass fossils

50-70

Divergence of the subfamilies 

50-80

Pooideae (wheat, barley, oat)

..

Bambusoideae (rice)

..

Panicoideae (maize, sorghum)

..

Earliest fossil of the rice lineage

40

Divergence of maize and sorghum lineages

15-20

Divergence of wheat and barley lineages

10-14

Divergence of wheat and rye lineages

7

Note: Panicoideae diverged from the Pooideae-Bambusoideae first, followed shortly by divergence of the latter two subfamilies, or authors suggest that either the Pooideae or the Bambusoideae branched off first. In general, it seems that all three subfamilies diverged about the same time. Some phylogenies divide Bambusoideae into two subfamilies, Oryzoideae and Bambusoideae.

FIGURE 10a: The phylogeny of wheat (Triticum ssp.)

Aegilops species

Genome designation

Aegilops bicornis, 2n=2x=14

Sb

Aegilops biuncialis, 2n=4x=28

UMo

Aegilops caudata, 2n=2x=14

C

Aegilops columnaris, 2n=4x=28

UXt

Aegilops comosa, 2n=2x=14

M

Ae. crassa var. crassa, 2n=4x=28

DcXc (relative to S)

Ae. crassa var. glumiaristata, 2n=6x=42

DcXcD

Aegilops cylindrica, 2n=4x=28

DC

Aegilops heldrichii, 2n=2x=14

M

Aegilops juvenalis, 2n=6x=42

DcXcU

Aegilops kotschyi, 2n=4x=28

USl

Aegilops longissima, 2n=2x=14

Sl

Aegilops mutica, 2n=2x=14

T

Aegilops ovata, 2n=4x=28

UMo

Aegilops recta, 2n=6x=42

UXtN

Aegilops searsii, 2n=2x=14

Ss

Aegilops sharonensis, 2n=2x=14

Sl

Aegilops speltoides, 2n=2x=14

S

Aegilops tauschii, 2n=2x=14

D

Aegilops triuncialis, 2n=4x=28

UC

Aegilops triaristata, 2n=4x=28

UXt

Aegilops umbellulata, 2n=2x=14

U

Aegilops uniaristata, 2n=2x=14

N

Aegilops variabilis, 2n=4x=28

USl

Aegilops vavilovii, 2n=6x=42

DcXcSs

Aegilops ventricosa, 2n=4x=28

DN

FIGURE 11c: sunflower - Sonnenblume f, Helianthus annuus (Compositae)

Table 0: Re-description of genomes in Aegilops species, modif. after Slageren 1994 and Dvorak 1998; source: http://herbarium.usu.edu/Triticeae/aegsynop.htm

© by R. Schlegel 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

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