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... more 10.000 glossed keywords and links to more than 100 figures and schemes, about 100 tables etc. can be obtained in addition to this limited INTERNET version or in modified design as book by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA

kafirin: a storage protein of sorghum phys >>> Table 15

kanamycin: an aminoglycoside antibiotic; a kanamycin resistance is used as a selection marker in genetic experiments phys biot >>> kanamycin-resistant tissue

kanamycin-resistant tissue: tissue that is resistant to the lethal effects of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, kanamycin; some cloning vectors have a kanamycin-resistant gene as a selectable marker biot

karyogamy: the fusion in a cell of haploid (n) nuclei to form a diploid (2n) cyto

karyogenesis: formation of the nucleus (the central structure) of a cell—the smallest, most basic unit of life that is capable of existing by itself; karyogenesis comes from the Greek word karyon meaning “nucleus,” and the Greek word genesis meaning “production”; in a narrow sense, the division of the cell nucleus is distinguished from cytoplasmic division or cytokinesis; it represents a system by which the genetic information contained in the chromosomes of eukaryotes is distributed to the daughter nuclei, which are generally identical to the mother cell nucleus cyto

karyogram >>> idiogram

karyology: the study of the nucleus and its components cyto

karyolysis: the disappearance of the interphase nucleus during karyogenesis cyto

karyosome: any of several masses of chromatin in the reticulum of a cell nucleus cyto

karyostasis: the stage of cell cycle in which there is no visible dividing activity of the nucleus, but a metabolic and synthetic activity cyto phys

karyotype: the entire chromosomal complement of an individual cell or individual, which may be observed during mitotic metaphase cyto

keel: the main nerve of, for example, the wheat glume, shaped somewhat like a keel of a boat; in legumes also a boatlike formation of the flower bot

keel flower: boatlike shape of a flower (e.g., in legumes such as pea) bot

keiki: a vegetative offshoot formed at a node (e.g., in some orchids) bot

kernel: a whole grain or seed of a cereal plant or the part of the seed inside the pericarp bot

ketone: any of a class of organic compounds containing a carbonyl group, CO, attached to two alkyl groups, as CH3COCH3 chem

key gene >>> oligogene

killing frost: a sharp fall in temperature that damages a plant so severely as to cause its death env phys

kilning: the heating and/or drying process used in the production of malt to stop germination and kill the grain prep

kilobases (kb): 1,000 base pairs/bases in a single- or double-stranded nucleic acid, which is used as a common unit of length in molecular genetics gene >>> measures

kilogram: equals 1,000 grams >>> measures

kilometer: equals 1,000 meters >>> measures

kinase: an enzyme that catalyzes reactions involving the transfer of phosphates from a nucleoside triphosphate (e.g., ATP) to another substrate phys

kinetin (6-fururylaminopurine): a degradation product of animal DNA, which does not occur naturally and which has properties similar to those of cytokinins; applied to certain leaves, kinetin delays senescence in its vicinity and attracts nutrients chem phys

kinetochore: a dense, plaquelike area of the centromere region of a chromatid, to which the microtubules of the spindle attached during cell division cyto >>> centromere >>> Figure 11

kinin >>> cytokinin

kinship >>> coancestry

KJELDAHL method: a technique often used for the quantitative estimation of the nitrogen content of plant material (e.g., of cereal grains) meth

KLENOW fragment: large fragment of DNA polymerase I after proteolytic digestion; it lacks 5' to 3' exonuclease activity and can therefore not be used for nick translation but is very useful for filling-in reactions and DNA sequencing by the SANGER method biot

klon >>> clone

kneading: to work dough into a uniform mixture by pressing, folding, and stretching meth

knob: a heavily stainable and quite a big chromomere observed along a chromosome of some plants (e.g., in maize it is used as a marker in pachytene analysis) cyto >>> chromomere

knot: a lump or swelling in or on a part of a plant (e.g., the node of grass) bot

KOEHLER illumination: illumination optics resulting in the image of the light source being out of focus at the specimen plane; it provides homogeneous illumination of the specimen micr

KORNBERG enzyme >>> DNA polymerase I

KOSAMBI formula: recombination fractions and map distances correspond only over relatively short recombinational distance; as genetic distance increases, the probability of a second (and correcting) recombination also increases, hence the measured recombination for two loci is less than would be apparent if a third intervening locus were present; various mapping functions have been suggested to permit single recombination fractions to be converted to map distances; KOSAMBI presented the simplest and probably most general functions, which is given as: x = 25 logn [(1 + 2y)/(1 – 2y)]; x is the map distance (cM) corresponding to the recombination fraction, y; for example, if the recombination value is 0.05 then the distance amounts 5 cM, is the value 0,1 then the distance is 10.1 cM, etc. gene

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