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... more 10.000 glossed keywords and links to more than 100 figures and schemes, about 100 tables etc. can be obtained in addition to this limited INTERNET version either on CD-ROM or in modified design as book by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA

F1 >>> filial generation

F2: the progeny produced by intercrossing or self-fertilization of F1 individuals meth

F3: progeny obtained by self-fertilizing F2 individuals meth

F1 synthetic variety (Syn-1): a variety derived by intercrossing a specific set of clones or seed-propagated lines; they may include varieties of normally cross-fertilizing or self-fertilizing crops into which mechanisms have been introduced to maximize cross-fertilization, e.g., Vitagraze' rye seed

F2 variety: it refers to the next generation seed derived from the hybrid (F1) generations; the variety cannot be perpetuated by growing additional generations, e.g., the tomato variety “Foremost F2” seed meth

facilitated recurrent selection: a type of recurrent selection in which genetic male sterility is maintained in the population to maintain heterozygosity and genetic diversity and to permit the recombination and shifting of gene frequencies meth

factor: synonymous with gene gene

factor(ial) analysis: a multivariate statistical analysis in which the independent variables are grouped into factors describing the variance of the dependent variables; it is used in cluster analysis stat

factorial crossing group >>> crossing group(s)

factorial design: in a factorial design, the effect of two or more factors can be simultaneously observed (e.g., planting time, fertiliser, watering regime), i.e., the design provides information on the average effect of the individual factors as well as the interaction between these two factors; this design type also allows a wider application of the conclusions reached on the effect of each factor because each factor is tested over a wide range of conditions of other pertinent factors; the statistical analysis used is >>> ANOVA followed by a DUNCAN's multiple range test; because the total number of treatment combinations (the product of the numbers of levels of the factors) may be very large, it is often necessary  to test some of these combinations, giving a “fractional factorial design”; a suitable fraction may be an orthogonal array, or a subgroup of the direct product of abelian groups of orders equal to the number of levels of each factoragr meth stat >>> factorial trial  >>> Table 40

factorial trial: experimental design in which the effects of a number of different factors are investigated simultaneously; the factorial set of treatments consists of all combinations that can be formed from the different factors; the trial can include randomized complete blocks and Latin squares (e.g., treatments A and B at levels x and y); the sources of variance are replicates A, B, A x B, and error stat >>> factorial design >>> Table 40

facultative apomict: apomicts that retain sexuality so that aberrant offspring may occur bot

facultative growth habit >>> winter-and-spring wheat

facultative heterochromatin: heterochromatin that is present in only one of a pair of homologues or not permanently present cyto

facultative parasite: a mainly saprophytic organism with weakly pathogenic properties phyt

facultative-type (of growth habit): can be winter-and-spring type phys

fading >>> photobleaching

falcate >>> falciform

falciform: curved or sickle shaped (e.g., leaves or leaf hairs) bot

falling number (after HAGBERG): the test provides an indication of alpha amylase activity and depends on the action of this enzyme in reducing the viscosity of a heated flour-and-water slurry; alpha amylase is an enzyme involved in the degradation of starch to sugars and is usually associated with germination; sprouted grains give low falling numbers; high number is required for better bread-making quality (<200 low; 230 medium; >250 high; about 290 very high; >310 extremely high) meth


fallow (ground or cropland): leaving the land uncropped for a period of time; it may contribute to moisture accumulation, to improvement of soil structure, or to mineralization of nutrients; it may be tilled or sprayed to control weeds and conserve moisture in the soil agr

falls: the drooping or horizontal petals of irises bot hort

false color: representation in colors differing from the original scene micr

false fruit >>> pseudocarp

false node: an abnormal node that occurs in some varieties of, for example, oats; a true node, appearing devoid of branches, occurs a little distance below it but the branches remain fused with the rachis and appear at the false node bot

family: a group of individuals directly related by descent from a common ancestor, with at least one parent in common (one parent in common = half sibs; both parents in common = full sibs, selfing family = family obtained by self-pollinating a genotype) tax  >>> sib >>>  polycross >>> half-sib >>> full-sib >>> open pollination >>> wind pollination >>> selfing

family forestry: tested open-pollinated, polycross or full-sib families are deployed as single families to commercial plantations meth fore

family selection: the selection of progeny families on their mean performance; in addition, the best individuals are usually selected in the best families meth


fanning machine >>> winnower

fanning mill: the air-screen machine that utilizes airflow and sieving action in separating and cleaning seeds seed >>> air screen cleaner >>> winnower

fan-shaped >>> flabellate

fan-training >>> espalier

FAO/IAEA: Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria; in a broad sense, responsible for the utilization of nuclear energy in agriculture and food industry >>> organizations

farinogram: a curve on a kymograph chart; it provides accessory information on dough properties, such as absorption, optimum mixing time, and mixing tolerance; it may be used to estimate absorption and mixing time of a flour to be backed; specific correlations between those traits have been established meth

farinograph:an instrument used for measuring the mixing properties of a wheat-flour dough; the machine records mixing torque as a function of time meth>>> mixograph

farmer selection: syn participatory plant breeding;an aspect of some plant breeding programs in which the farmers make the final selection of cultivar; each farmer is given a different group of new clones or pure lines of a crop, emerging from a breeding program; they then may grow them and choose those they like best; their favorites become their own property, with the sole provision that the breeder may have some of them for the purpose of further breeding; the farmers can then grow that material for their own use, and give or sell propagating material to their friends and neighbors agr

FARMER’s fixative: 3 parts of anhydrous ethanol : 1 part of glacial acetic acid; a fixing and dehydrating agent used in histology; also used in conjunction with FEULGEN stain and carbolfuchsin stain for chromosome analysis prep cyto

farme’s privilege: a clause in the plant breeder’s rights legislation of most countries that permits a farmer to use some of their own crop of a registered cultivar for seed on their own farm only; a farmer may not sell any of that crop for seed unless licensed to do so; some seed companies deny this right, particularly with respect to >>> GMOs, by a special clause in the sale contract agr

farmer’s rights: the recognition of farmers (past, present, and future) as in situ agricultural innovators who collectively conserve and develop agricultural genetic resources around the world; as such, farmers are recognized as innovators entitled to intellectual integrity and to compensation whenever their innovations are commercialized agr

farro: it is known as hulled wheat; this means that the karyopsis retains its hull or husk during harvest and must be dehulled prior to further processing; its nutty flavor has long been popular in Europe, where it is also known as farro (Italy) and Dinkel (Germany); in Roman times it was called "farrum", an ancient grain believed to have sustained the Roman legions; origins can be traced back to early Mesopotamia; spelt (Triticum spelta) is an ancient and related to modern wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is one of the oldest of cultivated grains, preceded only by “emmer” and “einkorn”; in North America, this fine grain is commonly known as spelt; while there are occasional descriptions of spelt as not "true" farro, the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, via its report on Underutilized Mediterranean Species states that the only registered varieties of farro belong to spelt; it is an old Italian favorite (a famous wedding soup of these regions is called 'Confarrotio'); for centuries, farro has been a mainstay of Tuscany, Lazio, Umbria and Abruzzo in the northern part of Italy; these are relatively poor areas; pushed aside in recent decades by easier to grow and harvest varieties of common wheat, farro is making a comeback among health conscious cooks and consumers; from a cross-country reading of the culinary winds, it appears that farro has finally made it to the New World; used in soups, salads and desserts, the little light brown grain is an intriguing alternative to pasta and rice; now farro (pronounced FAHR-oh) appears to be moving from rustic tables into fashionable restaurants not only in Tuscany and northern Italy (where it suddenly seems ubiquitous on menus), but also in the United States, particularly on the West and East Coasts agr >>> wheat

fasciata-type of pea: a leaf mutant in peas; the leaves mutated into tendrils; it became a breeding target; several varieties are commercially used gene meth agr

fascicle: a bundle of needles on a pine tree bot

fasciculated root: fibrous roots, in which some of the branches are thickened bot agr


fat: used by most plants as a energy-rich storage substance, usually present in the seeds; in some seeds it may amount about 70 % of the dry matter; plant fats are usually liquid at room temperature and they are mixtures of glycerine ester of many fatty acids bot phys >>> Table 16

fat body >>> fat

father plant: the individual or species from which pollen was obtained to create a hybrid meth

fatoid: a mutation that arises spontaneously in cultivated oats; the plant and grain closely resemble the variety in which it occurs but the grain shows to a varying degree certain characteristics of wild oats (Avena fatua), for example, a strong geniculate awn, a “horseshoe” base and dense hairs on the callus and the rachilla bot gene

fatty acid: a long-chained, predominantly unbranched, carboxylic acid, in which a side-chain of carbon atoms is attached to the carboxyl group, and hydrogen atoms to some or all of the carbon atoms in the side chain chem phys

FDR >>> first divison restitution

fecundity: the potential number of offspring produced during a unit of time bot >>> resilience

fecundity selection: the forces acting to cause one genotype to be more fertile than another genotype evol

Federal Seed Act: a regulation of 1938 and improved in 1976; the USA statute governing aspects of seed production, handling, and sales seed

feedback mechanism: a control device in a system; homoeostatic systems have numerous negative-feedback mechanisms, which tend to counterbalance positive changes and so maintain stability phys

feed grain: any of several grains most commonly used for livestock feed, including maize, grain sorghum, soya, lupins, oats, rye, barley, etc. agr

female sterility - weibliche Sterilität f: some crops (e.g., banana) do not produce true seed because of a female sterility; however, >>> male sterility is much more common, and is more useful in plant breeding as a technique for achieving cross-pollination bot

fen: low land covered wholly or partially with water agr

ferality >>> crop ferality

ferment >>> enzyme

fermentation: anaerobic respiration; usually applied to the formation of ethanol or lactate from carbohydrate phys >>> biotechnology

ferredoxin: a nonhaem iron protein with a low redox potential that functions as an electron carrier in both photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation phys

fertile: a plant produces seed capable of germination or which produces viable gametes cyto gene

fertile crescent: an archaeological term used to describe the fertile area of ancient agriculture that extends from modern Israel in a wide arc to the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers agr >>> SCHLEGEL (2007)

fertility: fruitfulness, ability to produce viable offspring bot gene

fertilization: the union of two gametes to produce a zygote that occurs during sexual reproduction bot

fertilize: bringing together the two gametes to produce a zygote meth

fertilizer: a material that is added to the soil to supply one or more plant nutrients in a readily available form agr

fertilizer grade: an expression that indicates the percentage of plant nutrients in a fertilizer agr phys

festulolium: an artificial grass hybrid between Festuca pratensis x Lolium perenne, which is used in agriculture as a forage crop bot agr

FEULGEN method >>> FEULGEN reaction

FEULGEN reaction: a cytochemical test that utilizes SCHIFF’s reagent as a stain and DNA hydrolysis; it is highly specific for DNA detection; the method allows a wide range of chromosome studies and quantitative determination of DNA contents of nuclei applying the so-called cytophotometry; it was discovered in 1912 by FEULGEN micr

FEULGEN staining: a histochemical and/or cytochemical reagent for quantifying nuclear DNA content or for staining chromosomes in cells; it it prepared as follows: 900 mL distilled water is boiled in 2-liter flask, then 5.0 g basic fuchsin is slowly added; it is swirled for one minute and then vacuum filtered through two layers of filter paper in a BUCHNER funnel into a 1-liter flask; it is then cooled to 50°C; while swirling 100 mL hydrochloric acid, 1.0 N 10.0 g potassium metabisulfite (K2S2O5) is added and swirled for two minutes; the cloudy red solution will become clear blood red; it is stored in the refrigerator for twenty-four hours, then it is removed, warmed to room temperature, and supplemented by 3.75 g activated charcoal; it is shaken vigorously for one minute and then vacuum filtered; the reagent should be clear and colorless; if not, the charcoal step must be repeated; the reagent has to be stored in the refrigerator and used within forty-eight hours; it remains stable for months meth cyto

few-seeded >>> oligospermous

fiber: an elongated, thick-walled, often lignified cell (sclerenchyma) present in various plant tissues, usually providing mechanical support bot

fiber crop: a crop plant mainly used for production of fiber (e.g., flax, abaca, hemp, etc.) agr

fibril: a small thread or very fine fiber; normally a fiber is constituted of a bundle of fibrils bot

fibrillar >>> fibril

fibrillarin: a nucleolar protein bot

fibrous: resembling or having fibers bot

fibrous root: a fine, densely branching root that absorbs moisture and nutrients from the soil bot agr


Ficoll: the brand name for an inert, synthetic, highly soluble polymer used as an osmotic agent; sometimes used for suspending protoplasts prep biot

field burning: burning plant residue after harvest (1) to aid in insect, disease, and weed control, (2) reduce cultivation problems, and (3) stimulate subsequent regrowth and tillering of perennial crops agr meth phyt

field capacity: water that remains in soil after excess moisture has drained freely from the soil; usually expressed as a percentage of oven-dry weight of soil agr

field crops >>> cash crops

field diaphragm: a variable diaphragm located in the illumination pathway micr

field experiment(ation): an evaluative test whereby the field performance of experimental plants is assessed in comparison to controls meth >>> design of experiments

field gene bank: a collection of accessions kept as plants in the field (e.g., perennial entries) meth

field germination: a measure of the percentage of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling under field conditions meth agr >>> ground germination rate

field grafting: grafting a new variety on to an established rootstock already growing in the orchard hort

field laboratory >>> field test

field moisture capacity: the water that soil contains under field conditions agr >>> field capacity

field plane: the set of plane(s) that are conjugate with the focused specimen; in a microscope adjusted for KOEHLER illumination it includes the planes of the specimen, the field diaphragm, the intermediate image plane, and the image on the retina micr

field plot size >>> plot size

field resistance: synonymous to general resistance; it is under polygenic control (i.e., controlled by many genes with minor individual effects); in general, field resistance is longer lasting than race-specific resistance; field resistance slows down the rate at which disease increases in the field phyt

field test: an experiment conducted under regular field conditions (i.e., less subject to control than a precise contained experiment); more general, the study of a data collection activity in the setting where it is to be conducted statmeth agr >>> field experiment(ation)

field trial: experiments carried out in the field meth >>> field test

filament: the stalk of a stamen, which bears the anther bot >>> Figure 35 >>> Picture 013

filamentous: threadlike bot >>> filiform

filial generation (F1): the offspring resulting from first experimental crossing of the plants; the parental generation with which the genetic experiment starts is referred to as P1 gene >>> F1

filiation >>> descent

filiform: threadlike, long, and slender bot

filling >>> beat(ting) up >>> fill planting

fill planting: the planting of plants in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking (density), either in plantations, areas of natural regeneration, or other trials meth fore

filter hybridization: hybridization of nucleic acid fragments on a filter (e.g., nitrocellulose) as a carrier meth gene >>> SOUTHERN transfer

final host >>> definite host

fingerprint: the characteristic spot pattern produced by electrophoresis of the polypeptide or DNA fragments obtained through denaturation of a particular protein or DNA with a proteolytic enzyme or other means biot >>> fingerprinting

fingerprinting: the method for combining electrophoresis and chromatography to separate the components of a protein or DNA; the protein is denatured by means of a proteolytic enzyme and the resulting polypeptide fragments produce a characteristic spot pattern, referred to as a fingerprint, after electrophoresis; it is also used with hydrolyzed fragments of nucleic acids; it became a common and very sensitive method for identification of different plant genotypes gene

firm seeds: sometimes applied to grass caryopses that are dormant due to seed coats that are impervious to water or gases bot

first division restitution (FDR): it results by an abnormal orientation of the spindles right before meioitc anaphase II; non-sister chromatids end up in the same nucleous; it was found in several crop species, such as potato, rye etc cyto

FIS: International Federation of Seed Trade

FISH >>> fluorescence in situ hybridization

fishtail weeder >>> asparagus knife

fissable >>> fissile

fissile >>> fission

fission: in genetics, the division of one cell by cleavage into two daughter cells, or a chromosome into two arms cyto

fitness: the relative ability of a plant to survive and transmit its genes to the next generation eco >>> resilience

fixation: the first step in making permanent preparations of tissue, etc., for microscopic study; the procedure aims at killing cells and preventing subsequent decay with the least distortion of structure prep cyto

fixation agent: a solution used for the preparation of tissue for cytological or histological studies; it precipitates the proteinaceous enzymes and prevents autolysis, destroys bacteria, etc. (e.g. acetic acid, formalin, FARMER’s fixative, etc.) prep

fixative >>> fixation agent

fixed effects model: an effect of a treatment, in any experiment, which is concerned only with a certain, particular set of treatments rather than with the whole range of possible treatment effects stat

flabellate: fan-shaped bot

flabelliform >>> flabellate

flag leaf: the uppermost leaf on the grass stem and the last to emerge before the spike bot

flanking region: the DNA sequences extending on either side of a specific locus or gene biot gene

flash tape: a metalized plastic tape that produces bursts of light in response to breezes; it is suspended over crops to scare away birds agr

flat: a container for holding packs of plant starter cells hort

flexuous (spike neck): wavy or in a more or less zigzag line bot

flint maize: a variety of maize, Zea mays ssp. indurata, with very hard-skinned kernels agr

floating check >>> check variety

floating leaf: a leaf swimming on the surface of water (e.g., in lotus) bot

floating row cover: a fiber sheet, water and air penetrable; it is placed over a row or bed of plants for protection from heat, cold, or insects hort meth

flora: the plants of a particular region or period, listed by species and considered as a whole; in general, plants, as distinguished from fauna bot

floral induction: the morphological changes in the development of a reproductive meristem from a vegetative meristem; it is the morphological expression of the induced state and usually occurs inside the meristem phys

floral initiation >>> floral induction

floral meristem: a meristem that gives rise to a flower bot

floral primordium >>> floral meristem

florescence: anthesis or flowering time or the state of being in bloom bot

floret: a single flower consisting of the ovary, stamens, and lodicules together with its enveloping lemma and palea in grasses bot

floret initial >>> floral primordium

floriculture: the cultivation of flowers or flowering plants hort

floridean starch: an algal reserve resembling glycogen or amylopectin bot

floriferous: bearing flowers bot

florigen: the universal hormone that supposedly causes plants to change from the vegetative to the reproductive state; in 2005, after 70 years of hypothesis O. NIELSON et al. (Science 2005) identified mRNA of the FT gene of Arabidopsis thaliana that is produced in leaves and induces flowering when transported to apex tissue phys

flour: the finely ground meal of grain (e.g., from cereals) separated by bolting agr prep

floury >>> chalky

flow cytometry >>> sorting

flow densitometry >>> sorting

flower: a typical flower of angiosperms or plants whose seeds are enclosed in an ovary; it is composed of petals, sepals, stamens, and a pistil; the flower morphology contributes to the relative importance of self- and cross-pollination; the two structures directly involved in sexual reproduction are the male stamina and the female pistil; a stamen consists of an anther, which contains the pollen grains, and a filament on which the anther is borne bot >>> self-incompatibility >>> Table 18 >>> Picture 010, 012, 013, 014

flower bud initiation >>> floral primordium

flower debris: the remains of spent flowers which drop and often accumulate on the surface of the soil; the presence of flower and other plant debris may attract certain insects which feed on or take shelter beneath decaying plant matter hort

floweret: one of the segments of a cauliflower head hort

flowering hormone >>> florigen

flow sorting >>> sorting

fluid drilling: a mechanical procedure for planting seed; pregerminated seeds are suspended in a gel and sowed through a fluid drill seeder; this technology is potentially adaptive for sowing artificial seed, such as somatic embryos or embryoids agr biot

fluorescence: property of certain molecules to absorb energy in the form of light and then release this energy at a longer wavelength than the wavelength of absorption (i.e., at a lower energy level) micr phy

fluorescence dye: several dyes are critical for specific light specters, for example, Hoechst, DAPI, AMCA, Cascade Blue, Fura, Dansylchloride, Fluorescine FITC for green light, Lucifer Yellow, Quinacrin, Chromomycin A3, FITC, NBD Chloride for yellow light, Phycoerythrin, Propdium Iodide, Feulgen, Auramine, DiOC, Ethidium Bromide for orange light or Rhodamine or Texas Red for red light micr

fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a technique for visual detection in the microscope of specific DNA sequences on cytological fixed chromosomes, after hybridization with DNA probes labeled with a fluorochrome; it can be done on both interphase and metaphase chromosomes cyto meth >>> chromosome painting

fluorescence microscopy: the common method of microscopic examination base on observing the specimen in the light transmitted or reflected by it; fluorescence preparations are self-luminous; the tissue is stained by fluorochromes, dyes that emit light of longer wavelength when exposed to blue or ultraviolet light; the fluorescing parts of the stained object then appear bright against a dark background; the staining technique is extremely sensitive micr >>> fluorescence dye >>> chromosome painting

fluorescence staining: very few biological samples are inherently fluorescent such that they can be imaged directly; instead, fluorescence micro scopy essentially always uses a fluorochrome that is introduced through some form of staining procedure; fluorescence staining for flow cytometric, fluorescence or light microscopic analysis; the fluorescence can be directly applied, such as 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI); it is known to form fluorescent complexes with natural double-stranded DNA, showing a fluorescence specificity for AT, AU, and IC clusters; because of this property, DAPI is a useful tool in various cytochemical investigations; when DAPI binds to DNA, its fluorescence is strongly enhanced, what has been interpreted in terms of a highly energetic and intercalative type of interaction, but there is also evidence that DAPI binds to the minor groove, stabilized by hydrogen bonds between DAPI and acceptor groups of AT, AU, and IC base pairs; other applications use single-stranded DNA sequences with a fluorescent label to hybridize with its complementary target sequence in the chromosomes, allowing it to be visualized under ultraviolet light; fluorescence staining methods offer several advantages, such as high resolution, live cell staining, and the possibility of dual or multiple labeling cyto meth >>> fluorescence microscopy >>> fluorescence dye

fluorescent: the color exhibited when the grain or glumes of certain oat varieties are viewed under ultraviolet light or other radiation phys

fluorescin: a red crystalline compound, C20H12O5, which in alkaline solutions produces an intense green chem

fluorescin diacetate (FDA) staining: living cells stained with FDA fluorescence in the presence of UV light; the stain is used to assess cell viability of cell cultures, etc. meth

fluorochrome >>> fluorescence dye

flush cut: a pruning cut to remove a tree limb in which the cut is completely flush with the tree; the resulting scar is usually too large to heal efficiently meth hort

flush ends >>> blunt ends

flush season: the plant growth that is produced during a short period agr

flux: a flowing or flow phys

focal plane: a plane through a focal point and perpendicular to the axis of a lens, mirror, or other optical system micr

focus: the ability of a lens to converge light rays to a single point micr

fodder: harvested grass or other crop parts for animal feed agr

fodder crop - Futterpflanze f: any crop that is grown for feeding farm animals, such as hay, turnips, mangolds, fodder beet, fodder legumes, and fodder grasses, etc. agr

foliaceous: leaflike shape bot

foliage: the leaves of plants bot

foliage blight >>> late blight

foliar feeding: feeding plants by spraying liquid fertilizer on the leaves agr hort

foliar nutrient: any liquid substance applied directly to the foliage of a growing plant for the purpose of delivering an essential nutrient in an immediately available form agr

foliar treatment: treating plants by spraying liquid or dry insecticides, pesticides, or herbicides on their leaves agr hort phyt

foliation: leafing bot

foliole: leaflet bot

foliose: leafy bot

follicle: a fruit with a simple pistil that at maturity splits open along one suture bot

follicular fruit >>> follicle

food grain: cereal seeds most commonly used for human food, chiefly wheat and rice agr

food legume: legume plants with nutritive value for humans, directly and indirectly consumed agr

food plant: plants with nutritive value for humans, directly and indirectly consumed agr

food species >>> food plant

foot (ft): equals 30.48 cm

foot rot >>> eyespot disease

footprinting: a method used to determine the length of nucleotide chains that are close to a protein (which bind to DNA); for example, certain types of drugs act by binding tightly to certain DNA molecules in specific locations gene meth >>> fingerprinting

forage: feed from plants for livestock such as hay, pasturage, straw, silage, or browse agr

forage crop: crop plants for feeding of livestock (e.g., alfalfa, clover, maize) agr >>> forage

forage shrub >>> forage

forceps >>> pincers

forcing: the practice of bringing a plant into growth or flower (usually by artificial heat or controlling daylight) at a season earlier than its natural one; it is sometimes applied in order to synchronize flowering dates of parental plants for crosses in the greenhouse meth

forecrop: the crop grown during the season of the respectively present cropping agr

foreign DNA: DNA that is not found in the normal genome concerned; usually it is directly or indirectly introduced into a recipient cell by several experimental means biot meth

forest tree breeding: the genetic manipulation of trees, usually involving crossing, selection, testing, and controlled mating, to solve some specific problem or to produce a specially desired product fore gene

forked: sometimes a morphological deviation of the common root in beets (e.g., sugarbeet) agr >>> fangy root

form: a botanical category ranking below a variety and differing only trivially from other related forms (e.g., in waxiness of leaves) tax

forma specials (f.sp.): a taxon characterized from a physiological standpoint (especially host adaptation); in general, biotypes of pathogen species that can infect only plants that are within a certain host genus or species phyt tax >>> Table 12

formaldehyde: a colorless gas readily soluble in water chem phys

formalin: an aqueous solution of formaldehyde commonly used as a fixative that functions through cross-linking protein molecules chem prep

formazan: colorless when dissolved in water; the chemical 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride is reduced to the red-colored chemical triphenyl formazan on contact with living, respiring tissue; the amount of formazan formed is used as a measure of seed viability, as it reflects oxidative metabolism chem seed >>> tetrazolium test

forward mutation: a mutation that alters (usually inactivates) a wild-type allele of a gene gene >>> back mutation

forward selection: choosing good individuals out of a progeny test for possible use in seed orchards and/or subsequent generations of breeding fore hort >>> backward selection

fossil: markedly outdated evol >>> Table 32

foundation seed: seed stocks increased from breeder seed; handled as to closely maintain the genetic identity and purity of the variety; it is a sort of certified seed, either directly or through registered seed seed >>> Table 28 >>> base seed

foundation single cross: it refers to a single cross in the production of a double, three-way, or top cross meth

foundation stock: the original source of seed from which all other grades of seed are produced meth seed >>> foundation seed

founder effect: genetic drift due to the founding of a population by a small number of individuals gene

founder population: the first generation of a breeding population, e.g., in forest tree breeding often the initial plus trees; this is usually the starting point of calculations fore hort meth >>> base population

founders >>> founder population

four-way cross >>> double cross

foxtailing (in pine trees): when pines, e.g., >>> Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), are transferred south to tropical climates, it is fairly common to see a few individuals that fail to branch;  there are also examples of extremely narrow-crowned phenotypes even in temperate climates, e.g. Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) growing in the Sierra Nevada of California; there are both genetic and environmental components involved in foxtailing; e.g., a selected strain of Caribbean pine that was certified not to foxtail in Australia reportedly exhibited 80% foxtailing when grown in Puerto Rico; foxtailing decreases with altitude, stand density, and soil quality; the cause is thought to be due to hormone imbalances induced by exotic environments fore phys >>> Picture 3

fragrant: the odor or smell that a plant exudes from either its flowers or its foliage hort

frame shift mutation: a mutation that is caused by a shift of the reading frame of the mRNA (usually by the insertion of a nucleotide) synthesized from the altered DNA template gene

free nuclear division: it refers to mitotic division of nuclei without accompanying cytokinesis, i.e., nuclei divide in a common cytoplasm and the cells walls only forming around each later bot

free-threshing: spikes with brittle (fragile) rachis; for example, in wheat, it is controlled by a single recessive allele; the fragility of the spike reveals the main difference between wild and cultivated forms bot gene agr

freeze preservation >>> cryopreservation

freezing injury: a type of winter injury caused by the combined effects of low temperature, wind, and insufficient soil moisture; the low temperature injury is associated with ice formation in the extracellular spaces resulting in freeze-induced dehydration and metabolic changes; the plasma membrane remains attached to the cell wall, causing the cell to collapse phys agr

frego-bract mutant: a mutant bract type in cotton in which the bracts curl outward, exposing flower buds and bolls gene

frequency histogram: a step-curve in which the frequencies of various arbitrarily bounded classes are presented as a graph stat

frequency-dependent selection: selection where the fitness of a type varies with its frequency (i.e., whereby a genotype is at an advantage when rare and at a disadvantage when common) gene meth

frequency table: a way of summarizing a set of data; a record of how often each value (or set of values) of the variable in question occurs; may be enhanced by the addition of percentages that fall into each category; used to summarize categorical, nominal, and ordinal data; may also be used to summarize continuous data once the data set has been divided up into sensible groups stat

friabilin(s): proteins that determine the adhesion of the starch granules; for example, in wheat they determine the difference between hard and soft wheat; soft wheats show strong friabilins, which bind the granules and hence the endosperm fractionates into large fragments, whilst hard wheats contain weaker friabilins and hence fracture into small fragments; latest molecular and biochemical evidences associate them with differences in the structure of proteins (puroindolines) phys meth


frilling: a method of killing trees by inflicting a series of cuts around the bole or stem and applying an herbicide to the wounds; frilling or >>> girdling of trees may be used to reduce the density of a stand or to kill individual undesirable trees fore

frond: the leaves of ferns and other cryptogams; includes both stipe and blade; commonly used to designate any fernlike or featherlike foliage bot

frost crack: a vertical split in the wood of a tree, generally near the base of the bole, from internal stresses and low temperatures fore hort

frost damage >>> killing frost

frost killing >>> killing frost

frost-lifting of seedlings >>> heaving

frost resistance: the capacity to survive temperatures below zero degrees Celsius phys

frost tolerance: the ability of plants to survive very harsh winter conditions (i.e., to withstand subzero temperatures) agr

fructiferous: bearing fruits bot

fructification: the process of forming a fruit body or the fruit body itself bot

functional genomics: the science of how the genes in organisms interact to express complex traits, i.e., the field of research that aims to determine the function of newly discovered genes; attempts to convert the molecular information represented by DNA into an understanding of gene functions and effects; functional genomics also entails research on the protein function (proteomics) or, even more broadly, the whole metabolism (metabolics) of an organism gene biot

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