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... more 10.000 glossed keywords and links to more than 100 figures and schemes, about 100 tables etc. can be obtained in addition to this limited INTERNET version either on CD-ROM or in modified design as book by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA

BAC >>> bacterial artificial chromosomes

BAC vector: an Escherichia coli vector for DNA fragments; larger than cosmids; alternative to YAC vectors biot

bacciferous - beerentragend adj: berry load-bearing, producing berries bot

bacciform - beerenförmig adj: berry-shaped bot

Bacillus thuringiensis: a bacterium that kills insects; a major component of the microbial pesticide industry and a subject in biotechnology >>> Bt

backcross - RĂĽckkreuzung f: a cross of an F1 hybrid or heterozygote with an individual of genotype identical to that on one or the other of the two parental individuals; matings involving a hybrid genotype are used in genetic analyses to determine linkage and crossing-over values meth >>> Figures 2, 31 >>> Tables 27, 35

backcross breeding - RĂĽckkreuzungszĂĽchtung f: a system of breeding whereby recurrent backcrosses are made to one of the parents of a hybrid, accompanied by selection for a specific character(s) meth >>> Figure 31 >>> Tables  27, 35

backcross (donor) parent - RĂĽckkreuzungselter m: that parent of a hybrid with which it is again crossed or with which it is repeatedly crossed; backcrosses may involve individuals of genotype identical to the parent rather than the parent itself meth >>> Figures 2, 31 >>> Tables  27, 35

backcross method >>> backcross breeding

backcross-assisted selection (BCAS) - rĂĽckkreuzungsvermittelte ZĂĽchtung f: a method that allows the selection of plants carrying a favorable recessive allele at each generation, limiting the need for a progeny test, which is common in traditional backcrossing; in cases where the traditional means of selection are limited by environmental conditions (e.g., the presence of an abiotic or a biotic stress such as drought) this selection strategy is superior to conventional ones; particularly in genetic transformation approaches, where the transgenes can be used as markers, BCAS may show a considerable advantage meth biot >>> Table 35


backcrossing >>> backcross

backfill - AuffĂĽllen n: filling in a planting hole around roots with a soil mix for better establishing the plant meth

backhoe - Hinterschar n: a shovel mounted on the rear of a tractor, hydraulically operated to dig trenches or pits in soil agr

back mutation - RĂĽckmutation f: a reverse mutation in which a mutant gene reverts to the original standard form and/or wild type; it is rare to forward mutations, but often strongly selected for; the AMES test relies on back mutation for the detection of mutagens gene

backward selection: selection of parent plants based on results from a progeny test meth

bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) - kĂĽnstliches Bakterienchromosom n: pieces of plant DNA that have been cloned inside living bacteria; they can be used as probes to detect complementary DNA sequences within large pieces of DNA via hybridization techniques, or for marker-assisted selection by faster selection of segregant-bearing genes for a particular trait and to develop future crop varieties faster biot

bacterial blight disease: a plant disease spread by bacteria which causes death of leaves, spotting of bean pods and discoloration of seed; e.g., in rice, the causal agent is Xanthomonas oryzae var. oryzae; symptoms are lesions usually starting near the leaf tips or leaf margins or both, and extend down the outer edge; young lesions are pale to grayish green, later turning yellow to gray (dead) with time; in very susceptible varieties, lesions may extend to the entire leafĂ‚  length into the leaf sheath phyt

bacterial diseases - bakterielle Krankheit f: diseases caused by specialized bacteria phyt >>> disease

bactericidal - bakterientötend adj: killing or hampering bacteria phyt

bacteriocide - Bakterienbekämpfungsmittel n, Bakteriozid n: a chemical compound that kills bacteria phyt

bacteriocin(s): bactericidal substances produced by certain strains of bacteria and active against some other strains of the same or closely related species phyt

bacterioid - Bakterioid n: bacteria cells that are not normal shaped, usually found in root nodules of legumes agr

bacteriology - Bakteriologie f: the branch of science for bacteria phyt

bacteriolysis - Bakteriolyse f: the lysis of bacterial cells, usually induced by antibodies formed by the host organism phyt

bacteriophage - Bakteriophage m: a virus that infects bacteria; consists of a polyhedral head containing DNA or RNA enclosed in a protein coat (e.g., the bacteriophages T4, M13, P1 and PS8 are used in genetic engineering) biot

bacteriosis >>> bacterial diseases

bacteriostatic - Bakteriostatikum n: a chemical or physical agent that prevents multiplication of bacteria without killing them phyt

bagging >>> caging

bait: a material used to lure insects; it is often added to pesticides (e.g., against snails) meth

baking test:  a standard baking test; a procedure for estimating the overall quality of a flour or meal, with respect to its performance in the bakery and the characteristics of bread made from it meth

balanced design - balancierte (Versuchs)anlage f: an experimental design in which all treatment combinations have the same number of observations; there are various different kinds of balance (variance balance, efficiency balance, etc.), none of which are equivalent to the combinatorialist's pairwise balance, but become equivalent to it if some extra conditions are satisfied (e.g. in binary equireplicate uniform block designs) stat

balanced diallelic - balanciert diallel adj: the genotype involving a multiple allelic locus in an autotetraploid where two different alleles are represented an equal number of times gene

balanced incomplete block design (BIB) - Versuchsanlage f mit balancierten unvollständigen Blöcken m pl : a design in which one constant value for the residual variance of the difference between candidates for all pairs of candidates is indicated stat meth

balanced lattice - balancierte Gitter(anlage) n: a special group of balanced incomplete block; allows incomplete blocks to be combined into one or more separate complete replicates stat meth

balanced lethal(s) - balancierter Letalfaktor(en) m pl: recessive lethals at different loci, so that each homologous chromosome carries at least one lethal, and associated with inversions, so that no recombination occurs between the homologous chromosomes gene

balanced polymorphism - balancierter Polymorphismus m: a genetic polymorphism that is stable, and is maintained in a population by natural selection, because the heterozygotes for particular alleles have a higher adaptive fitness than either homozygote; it is referred to as overdominance, as opposed to underdominance, where the heterozygotes have a lower fitness, giving rise to unstable equilibrium gene

balanced tertiary trisomic (BTT) - balanciertes Tertiärtrisom n: a specific interchange trisomic spontaneously selected or experimentally designed in a way that it is heterozygous (Aaa), its trisomic progeny after selfing is genetically similar to the parent; the dominant allele is present on the translocated chromosome linked to the break point; BTTs were thought to be used for hybrid seed production in barley cyto meth >>> Figure 14

baler - Ballenpresse f: a machine that picks up dry hay or straw after harvest and bundles it into big rectangular or round bales; the bales are tied together with baler twine agr

ball metaphase - Ball-Metaphase f: a form of mitosis with characteristically clumped chromosomes cyto

balm >>> balsam

balsam - Balsam m: a mixture of resins and ethereal oils of sticky consistency, secreted by some plants micr

band - Bande f, Streifen m: specific heterochromatic regions along a chromosome that can be stained by different banding methods cyto

band application - Streifenbehandlung f: the spreading of fertilizer or other chemicals over, or next to, each row of plants in a field, as opposed to broadcast application meth agr

banding - Bandierung f, Streifung f: a special staining technique for chromosomes, which results in a longitudinal differentiation (e.g., Giemsa staining, which is a complex of stains specific for the phosphate groups of DNA) cyto; in agriculture, placing fertilizer in continuous narrow bands and then covering it with soil agr; in horticulture, encircling part of a plant (e.g., a trunk) or a portion of a garden with some type of material that traps, kills, or keeps out pests (e.g., poisonous baits or copper stripping) hort meth >>> C banding >>> G banding

banding pattern - Bandenmuster n, Streifen~ n: the linear pattern of deeply stained bands and weakly staining interbands that results from more or less defined local differences in the degree of DNA compactation along the chromosome cyto

band-pass - Bandfilter m: a microscopic filter that passes light of a certain restricted range of wavelength micr

band-seeding - Streifensaat f: placing forage crop seed in rows directly above but not in contact with a band of fertilizer agr

barb - Bart m: a stiff bristle or hair terminating an awn or prickle bot

barbate - bärtig adj: having one ore more groups of hairs; bearded bot

bar chart >>> bar diagram >>> histogram

bar code - Strichkode m: a pattern of light and dark lines on labels that can be read by a light pen for direct entry into a computer; used for tagging and labeling of plants, seed accessions, etc. meth

bar diagram >>> histogram

bare root transplant: a soilless young plant lifted from a seedbed for transplanting, as opposed to a module or potted plant hort meth

bar gene - bar-Gene n: a gene from Streptomyces hygroscopices that encodes the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase; it confers resistance to “Bialaphos” herbicide; used in genetic transformation studies as a marker gene for selection of successful transformants biot

bark - Borke f, Rinde f: the outer skin of a tree trunk, outside the secondary, vascular cambium; it is composed of phloem tissue, which occurs as living inner and dead outer zones; the outer zone is penetrated by the cork layers formed from the cork cambia bot

bark ringing - Rindenringelung f: a method used for forcing fruit trees to flower; a complete ring is cut around the trunk below the lowest branch and another ring is cut right below the first; the bark between the rings is removed; the scar should be covered with grafting wax meth hort

barn - Scheune f: a building for storing straw, hay, grain, etc. agr

barren glume >>> spikelet glume

basal node - Basalnodium n, unterer Knoten m: the node or joint at the base of the stem bot

basal placentation - Basalplazentation f: a type of free-central placentation in which the seeds are attached at the bottom of the central ovary axis bot

basal rosette - Basalrosette f, untere Rosette f: in some plants, a cluster of leaves around the stem on or near the ground bot

base - Base f: a compound that reacts with an acid to give water (and a salt); a base that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide ions is called an alkali chem

base analogues - Basenanaloga n pl: a purine or pyrimidine base that differs slightly in structure from normal base, but that because of its similarity to that base may act as a mutagen when incorporated into DNA (e.g., uracil, 5-bromouracil, 5-fluorouracil, 5-methylcytosin, 5-bromocytosin, hypoxanthin) chem gene

base collection - Basiskollektion f, ~ sammlung f: a collection of germplasm that is kept for long-term, secure conservation and is not to be used as a routine distribution source; seeds are usually stored at subzero temperatures and low moisture content meth

base pair (bp) - Basenpaar n: the nitrogenous bases (adenine-thymine/uracil; guanine-cytosine) that pair in double-stranded DNA or RNA molecules; 1,000 bp = 1 kb gene

base pairing - Basenpaarung f: a complementary binding by means of hydrogen bonds of a purine to a pyrimidine base in nucleic acids gene

base population - Grundpopulation f: the initial set of genotypes from which selections will be taken to establish a breeding population, e.g., the wild forest; it is also sometimes referred to in the same meaning as recruitment population (in the first generation they are actually the same, and it can be referred to as one of the populations in a stratified tiered structure meth

base seed - Elitesaatgut n: particularly valuable seeds, usually derived from highly productive single plants (elite plants), which are used for seed production of commercially grown material; seed stock produced from breeder’s seed by, or under the control of, an appropriate agricultural authority; the source of certified seed, either directly or as registered seed seed >>> Table 28

basic chromosome set - Grundchromosomensatz m: the standard chromosome number of a given species gene cyto

basic form >>> primitive form

basic number (of chromosomes) - Grundzahl f: the haploid number of chromosomes in diploid ancestors of polyploids, represented by “x” gene cyto >>> basic chromosome set >>> genome

basic seed >>> base seed >>> elite >>> super-elite

basidiospore - Basidiospore f: from a basidium of Basidiomycetes-produced haploid spore that is formed after meiosis and exogenously laced up from a steringma bot phyt

basidium - Basidie f, Ständer m: a stand-like cell, mostly club-shaped, from which exogenously laced up haploid spores after karyogamy bot

bast - Bast m: any of several strong, woody fibers, such as flax, hemp, ramie, or jute, obtained from phloem tissue bot >>> phloem

bast plant - Faserpflanze f: crop plants used for fiber production, such as flax or hemp agr

bastard - Bastard m, Hybrid m: the product of crossing two sperm cells of genetically different constitution gene >>> hybrid

batch culture - Massenkultur f: a cell suspension grown in liquid medium of a set volume; inocula of successive subcultures are of similar size and cultures contain about the same cell mass at the end of each passage; cultures commonly exhibit five distinct phases per passage (a lag phase follows inoculation, then an exponential growth phase, a linear growth phase, a deceleration phase, and finally a stationary phase) biot

batch drying - StoĂźtrocknung f: drying seeds in relatively small quantities held in a stationary position (as opposed to drying in a continuous moving line) meth seed

BC1, BC2, BC3, etc.: symbols indicating the first, second, third, etc. backcross generation meth

BCAS >>> backcross-assisted selection

B chromosome - B-Chromosom n: any chromosome of a heterogeneous group of chromosomes present in several plant species, which differ in their morphology, numerical variation, meiotic pairing, and mitotic behavior from normal A chromosomes; they are also called supernumerary chromosomes, accessory chromosomes or extra chromosomes; a B chromosome derives from the A chromosome complement by aberrant division processes and subsequent modifications; up to 12 and more B chromosomes were observed in addition to the diploid A chromosome complement (e.g., in rye) cyto

beak - Häckchen n: the extension of the keel at the tip of the glume or lemma in wheat bot

beat(ting) up - Nachpflanzung f: restocking failed areas in a crop or stand by further sowings or plantings; there are several other terms in use, e.g. “blanking”, “filling”, “gapping”, “infilling”, “recruiting”, “reinforcement planting”; in forestry, it means to replace dead trees with new ones, especially during the early years of the establishment or re-establishment of a plantation fore

Becquerel (Bq): the SI unit of radioactivity; the unit is named after the discoverer of radioactivity, A. H. BEQUEREL phy

bed - Beet n: an area within a garden or lawn in which plants are grown meth

bedding plant - Beetpflanze f: a plant grown for its flowers or foliage that is suited by habit for growing in beds or masses hort

beet - RĂĽbe f: any of various biennial plants of the genus Beta, of the goosefoot family, especially B. vulgaris, having a fleshy red or white root and dark-green red-veined leaves; sugarbeet derived from B. vulgaris by selection for high sugar content bot hort

behavior flexibility - Verhaltensflexibilität f: all means of plant behavior permitting temporary adaptation to environmental conditions eco

behavior genetics - Verhaltensgenetik f: a branch of genetics dealing with the inheritance of different types and/or forms of behavior gene

belowground biomass >>> biomass

belt conveyor: endless band used for conveying grain or products in continuous stream meth

BERG micromethod: a method for characterizationof milling quality in cereals, e.g., 10 g of wheat of normal water content is ground to a meal, which is then sifted for 10 minutes on a sieving machine with 3 bolting cloths; No 9, 12 and 15 (“Silk cloth XX”) representing a mesh-width of 150, 105 and 75 µ, respectively; the flour fraction in g under cloth 15 gives the unit of BERG and has proved very useful for determination of the grittiness; it has been used to a great extent in the wheat breeding work at Weibullsholm, Sweden during the 1950-1960s meth

berry - Beere f: a simple, fleshy or pulpy and usually many-seeded fruit that has two or more compartments and does not burst open to release its seeds when ripe (e.g., banana, tomato, potato, grape) bot

berry-bearing >>> bacciferous

berry-shaped >>> bacciform

best linear prediction (BLP) - beste linerare Vorhersage f: a statistical method that utilizes matrix algebra to predict the breeding values for any trait or selection index; in BLP fixed effects are assumed to be known; BLP is especially suited for analyses of messy or unbalanced data meth stat

best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP): a statistical method that predicts breeding values for any trait or selection index meth stat

beta-glucan: it lowers serum cholesterol in humans; it is available in oats; development of cultivars with greater groat (caryopsis) beta-glucan content may increase the nutritional and economic value of the crop phys agr

betacyanin >>> table beet

beta-DNA: the normal form of DNA found in biological systems, which exists as a right-handed helix gene

betalain >>> table beet

betaxanthin >>> table beet

bevel (of lemma): a depression variable in depth in the base of the lemma, rounded in barley, transverse in oats bot

bias: a consistent departure of the expected value of a statistic from its parameter stat

biased >>> bias

bi-cropping: a method of growing cereals in a leguminous living mulch; it could potentially reduce the need for synthetic inputs to cereal production while preventing losses of nutrients and increasing soil biological activity; also a method of low input production system for cereals agr meth

biennial: a plant that lives for two years; during the first season food may be stored for the use during the flower and seed production in the second year bot >>> annual >>> perennial

biennial crop >>> biennial

bifloral: showing two flowers bot

bifoliate: showing two leaves bot

bifurcate: forked bot

bigerm: having two seeds bot

bimitosis: the simultaneous occurrence of two mitoses in binucleate cells cyto

bimodal distribution: a statistical distribution having two modes stat

binary: this term has several meanings, associated with the number 2 or the set {0,1} in some way; in statistical design theory, a >>> block design is binary if no treatment occurs more than once in a block (that is, a part of the treatment partition and a part of the block partition meet in at most one plot); if this holds, then a block can be thought of as a set (rather than a multiset) of treatments, and the block design can be represented as an incidence structure stat

binary scale: a scale for scoring data where there are only two possible responses meth

binemic: chromosomes that contain two DNA helices per metaphase chromatid cyto

binomial nomenclature: the system of naming organisms using a two-part Latinized (or scientific) name that was devised by the Swedish botanist  Carolus LINNAEUS (1707-1778); the first part is the generic name (genus), the second is the specific epithet or name (species); the Latin name is usually printed in italics, starting with a capital tax bot

binucleate: cells with two nuclei cyto

bioactive molecule: showing a direct or measurable effect on living tissues and cells biot

bioassay: the use of living cells or organisms to make quantitative and qualitative measurements meth

biocatalysis >>> biotechnology

biocatalyst: a biological substance used to cause a particular chemical or biochemical reaction phys chem

biochemical genetics: a branch of genetics dealing with the chemical nature of hereditary determinants gene

biochemistry: the chemistry of life; the branch of chemistry that is concerned with biological processes chem

biocide: a natural or synthetic substance toxic to living organisms phyt

biocoenosis: a community of organisms and its interaction with abiotic factors of habitat eco

biocontrol >>> biological control

biodiversity: the existence of a wide variety of species (species diversity), other taxa of plants or other organisms in a natural environment or habitat, or communities within a particular environment (ecological diversity), or of genetic variation within a species (genetic diversity); genetic diversity provides resources for genetic resistance to pests and diseases; in agriculture, biodiversity is a production system characterized by the presence of multiple plant and/or animal species, as contrasted with the genetic specialization of monoculture evol eco agr

bioethics: a field of study and counsel concerned with the implications of certain genetic and medical procedures, such as organ transplants, genetic engineering, and care of the terminally ill bio

biofortification: the process of breeding food crops that are rich in bioavailable micronutrients; these crops fortify themselves, i.e., they load high levels of minerals and vitamins in their seeds and roots, which are then harvested and eaten by animals or humans; through biofortification, breeders can provide farmers with crop varieties that naturally reduce anemia, cognitive impairment, and other nutritionally related health problems, potentially in third-world countries agr

bio-fuel(s): non-fossil fuel(s), produced from agriculture sources, residues, and waste, e.g., bio-ethanol refers to ethanol produced from crops (maize-ethanol, sugar-ethanol) agr

biogenesis: the production of living organisms from other living organisms bio

biolistic gene gun: “biolistic” derived from a contraction of the words “biological” and “ballistic”; it refers to a projectile fired from a gun; it is used to shoot pellets that are loaded with genes into plant seeds or tissues, in order to get them integrated and/or expressed in the foreign background; the gun uses an actual explosive to propel the material; compressed air or steam may also be used as the propellant biot

biological assay >>> bioassay

biological containment: precaution taken to prevent the spread of recombinant DNA molecules in the natural environment; disabled host organisms (e.g., with stable auxotrophic requirements or defective cell walls) together with nontransmissible cloning vectors are used; biological containment is especially important when toxin genes from pathogens are expressed in Escherichia coli or other vectors biot

biological control: the practice of using beneficial natural organisms to attack and control harmful plants, animal pests, and weeds is called biological control, or biocontrol; this can include introducing predators, parasites, and disease organisms, or releasing sterilized individuals; biocontrol methods may be an alternative or complement to chemical and gene-engineered pest control methods phyt >>> Bt >>> Bt gene

biological determinant: a biological factor such as crop species, variety, weeds, insect pests or disease that determines the crop configuration and performance of a cropping pattern at a given site or area agr

biological pesticide: a chemical which is derived from plants, fungi, bacteria, or other natural synthesis and which can be used for pest control phyt

biological species concept: a system in which organisms are classified in the same species if they are potentially capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring evol

biological yield: the total yield of plant material (i.e., the total biomass including the economic yield, e.g., the grain yield); the larger the biological yield, the greater the photosynthetic efficiency phys

biomass: the total weight of organic material in a given area or volume; it can be divided into aboveground and belowground biomass phys

biome: interactive groups of individuals of one or more species eco

biometrical genetics >>> quantitative genetics

biometry: mathematical statistics applied to biological investigations stat

biopesticide >>> biological pesticide >>> Bt

biopiracy: the collecting and patenting of plants and other biological material formerly held in common and their exploitation for profit biot

bioreactor: a culture vessel used for experimental or large-scale bioprocessing biot

bioseeds: seeds produced via genetic engineering of existing plants biot seed

biosome: any autonomous cell constituent multiplying by autoreduplication gene

biostatistics: the application of statistics to biological data stat >>> biometry

biosynthesis: the synthesis of the chemical components of the cell from simple precursors phys

biotechnology: any technique (e.g., recombinant DNA methods, protein engineering, cell fusion, nucleotide synthesis, biocatalysis, fermentation, cell cultures, cell manipulations etc.) that uses living organisms or parts of them to make or modify products, to improve organisms or to make them available for specific uses; more practically for plant breeding, applications are anther culture for haploid production, embryo/ovule culture after interspecific hybridization, genetic engineering (transformation), in vitro selection, in vitro germplasm conservation and exchange, micropropagation, cell and organ culture, somaclonal variation, somatic cell hybridization (protoplast fusion), or somatic embryogenesis biot

biotin(e): it functions as coenzyme; is a part of the vitamin B complex; it is also called vitamin H; it is present in all living cells, bound to polypeptides or proteins; it is important in fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism; it is a common addition to plant tissue culture media biot phys

biotinylated probe: a DNA sequence in which biotinylated dUTP is incorporated and labeled with biotin; it is used in DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, such as Southern transfer or in situ hybridization, with chromosomes; the detection of hybrid molecules is realized by a complex of streptavidin, biotin, and horseradish-peroxidase; if there is a hybridization then the complex shows a green fluorescence color micr cyto biot

biotope: a portion of a habitat characterized by uniformity in climate and distribution of biotic and abiotic components eco

biotrophic pathogen: a parasitic organism that obtains its nutrient supply only from living host tissue regardless of whether or not it can be artificially cultured phyt

biotrophy: obtains nutrients from living cells; biotrophs are typically obligate parasites; the term can also cover the phase in the infection process where a necrotroph  does not destroy the host (hemibiotrophic) phyt

biotype: a group of genetic identical individuals; sometimes, a physiologic race gene

bird netting: different types of mesh used as a drape to keep birds out of fruit trees, berry patches, vegetable gardens, or field experiments meth hort agr

bird pollination >>> ornithophily

birdscare: scarecrow

birimose: opening by two slits (e.g., anthers of plants) bot

bisexual - zweigeschlechtlich adj: species comprises individuals of both sexes or a hermaphrotide organism in which an individual plant possesses both stamens and pistils in the flower bot >>> Table 18

bisulfite genomic sequencing: a procedure in which bisulfite is used to deaminate cytosine to uracil in genomic DNA; conditions are chosen so that 5-methylcytosine is not changed; PCR amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing reveals that cytosines are methylated in genomic DNA biot

bitter pit - Stippigkeit f: a physiological disorder believed to be induced by calcium deficiency in apple fruits; the incidence of bitter pit usually occurs during storage, but in some cases it can also develop at harvest; the fact that total calcium in the fruit is not able to accurately predict bitter pit incidence has puzzled many scientists for a long time; the high correlation with no predictive accuracy between calcium and bitter pit make the development of this disorder one of the most complex and challenging mechanisms present in plants; the most effective way of prevention is spraying the trees (usually apple or pear) with calcium chloride or calcium nitrate hort phys

bivalent: two homologous chromosomes when they are paired during prophase-metaphase of the first meiotic division cyto >>> Figure 15

bivalent formation: the association of two homologous chromosomes as a ring or rod configuration depending on chiasma formation cyto >>> Figure 15

bivalent interlocking >>> interlocking

bla gene: beta-lactamase gene conferring resistance to ampicillin; commonly used as selective marker for plasmid vectors biot

blade: the expanded portion of a leaf, petal, or sepal bot >>> Table 30

blade joint: the flexible union between the leaf blade and the leaf sheath bot

blanch: a method to whiten or prevent from becoming green by excluding light; blanching is applied to the stems or leaves of plants (e.g., celery, lettuce, and endive); it is done either by banking up the soil around the stems, tying the leaves together to keep the inner ones from light, or covering with pots, boxes, etc. meth hort

blanking >>> beat(ting) up

blasting: a plant symptom characterized by shedding of unopened buds; leads to a failure of producing fruits or seeds phyt agr

blaze: to mark a tree, usually by painting and/or cutting the bark; boundaries of forest properties frequently are delineated by blazing trees along the boundary line fore

bleeding: exudation of the contents of the xylem stream at a cut surface due to root pressure bot

blemishe(s): often on fruit and vegetables are caused by crop parasites; since the development of synthetic crop protection chemicals, it has become fashionable to see only blemish-free produce on sale; however, blemishes are an indication of freedom from pesticides and are more accepted for this reason by lovers of organic food hort phyt

blend: a term applied to mechanical seed mixtures of different crop varieties or species that have been mixed together to fulfill a specific agronomic purpose seed

blended variety >>> multiline variety >>> blend

blending >>> blend

blending inheritance: inheritance in which the characters of the parents appear to blend into an intermediate level in the offspring with no apparent segregation in later generations gene

blight: a disease characterized by rapid and extensive death of plant foliage, and applied to a wide range of unrelated plant diseases caused by fungi, when leaf damage is sudden and serious (e.g., fire blight of fruit trees, halo blight of beans, potato blight, etc.) phyt

blind: without flowers; sterile bot

blind floret >>> blind

blindfold (trial): a trial to study soil heterogeneity (i.e., variation in the soil fertility); all plots contain the same genetically uniform plant material; the study may show that the growing conditions provided by a particular field may appear homogeneous when observed in some season and for some trait of a crop, but they may appear heterogeneous when observed in a different season or for some trait of a different crop; for a given crop, different traits may differ with regard to their capacity to show soil heterogeneity stat meth

B line: the fertile counterpart or maintainer line of an A line; does not have fertility restorer genes; used as the pollen parent to maintain the A line; used in hybrid seed production seed >>> Figure 2

block: a number of plots that offer the chance of equal growing conditions; comparisons among the entries, which are tested in the same block, offer unbiased estimates of genetic differences stat meth >>> Tables 25, 26 >>> biased

blocking: the procedure by which experimental units are grouped into homogeneous clusters in an attempt to improve the comparison of treatments by randomly allocating the treatments within each cluster or block stat >>> block >>> thinning >>> Table 25

bloom: the white powdery deposit often present on the surface of the stem, leaves, and ears of cereals or sorghum; often of a waxy nature; in general, the flower of a plant or the state of blossoming bot >>> waxiness

blooming: in grasses, the period during which florets are open and anthers are extended bot agr

blossom: the flower of a plant, especially of one producing an edible fruit; the state of flowering bot

blot: the transfer of DNA, RNA, or proteins to an immobilizing binding matrix, such as nitrocellulose, or the autoradiograph produced during certain blotting procedures (Southern blot, Northern blot, Western blot, etc.) meth gene biot

blotch: a disease characterized by large and irregularly shaped spots or blots on leaves, shoots, and stem phyt agr

blue-number method: a method of indirect determination of alpha amino nitrogen of proteins using copper reagent, e.g. in sugarbeet; it was developed during the 1930s and used until now; there is a good correlation between the amount of nitrogen in proteins and the so-called blue-number nitrogen; the method was used for selection of high-protein fodder beets; the method is fast and accurate, and the reagent can be prepared and stored for the whole campaign meth chem

blunt end ligation: ligation of DNA with blunt ends requires higher concentration of DNA ligase than sticky end ligation; it is inhibited by ATP concentrations > 1 mm biot

blunt ends: DNA fragments that are double-stranded paired over the whole length, usually produced by certain types of restriction enzymes gene

BOERNER divider >>> conical divider

boleless: without a trunk bot

boll: the fruit of cotton bot

boll size: weight in grams of seed cotton from one boll agr meth

bolt: formation of an elongated stem or seedstalk; in the case of biennial plants, this generally occurs during the second season of growth bot >>> bolter >>> Figure 71

bolter: they develop in long cold springs with morning frosts and low temperatures, not exceeding +5 °C, causing vernalization of the plants (e.g., in sugarbeet) phys >>> bolting >>> Figure 71

bolting: production of seed stalks the first season in a biennial crop (e.g., in beets); shoot elongation (bolting) starts after a period of low temperature, the dominant allele of locus B causes early bolting without cold treatment; this allele is abundant in wild beets whereas cultivated beets carry the recessive allele phys agr  >>> bolter >>> Figure 71

bolting resistance >>> bolter >>> bolting

bonsai: a tree or shrub grown in a container or special pot and dwarfed by pruning, pinching, and wiring to produce a desired shape meth hort

boot: the lower part of a cereal plant bot

boot(ing) stage: it refers to the growth stage of grasses at the time the head is enclosed by the sheath of the uppermost leaf agr

Bordeaux mixture - Bordeaux-BrĂĽhe f: the first, and also the most spectacularly successful, of all man-made fungicides, discovered in Bordeaux, France, by MILLARDET, in 1882;the mixture is prepared by mixing a solution of copper sulphate with freshly slaked lime; this fungicide saved the French wine industry from ruin by the newly introduced downy mildew (Peronospora viticola), and it also controlled potato blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans phyt hort agr

border effect: the environmental effect on plots that are on the edge of an experimental area stat meth

border strip: a demarcation surrounding a plot, usually given the same treatment as the plot; it is arranged in order to minimize border effects meth agr hort

boron (B): a nonmetallic element occurring naturally only in combination, as in borax or boric acid; boron can cause toxicity in several crop plants; as a micronutrient, deficiency of boron can be as severe chem agr

botanical pesticides: pesticides whose active ingredients are plant-produced chemicals such as nicotine, rotenone, or strychnine phyt >>> biological control

botany: the science of plants; the branch of biology that deals with plant life; the plant life of a region; the biological characteristics of a plant or group of plants bot

bottleneck: a period when a population becomes reduced to only a few individuals gene eco

botuliform: cylindrical with rounded ends, sausagelike in form bot

bough: the main arm or branch of a (fruit) tree bot hort

Bouillie bordelaise >>> Bordeaux mixture

boundary mark >>> landmark

bouquet stage: a meiotic prophase stage of some organisms during which the chromosome oriented by one or both ends toward one point in the nuclear envelope cyto

Boyage system >>> chopping

bp >>> base pair

brachyomeiosis: an abnormal meiosis characterized by omission of the second meiotic division cyto

brackling: a term used to describe bending over or breaking at the top node; it appears to be a term particular to the UK where cereal varieties are rated routinely for normal lodging and brackling; brackling is more common with barley than wheat; it is genotype-specific and it is  influenced by the environment, frequently associated with wet weather near  maturity; the phenomenon of bending at the top node appears to be more widely known than the term "brackling" agr >>> lodging >>>  Figure 43

bract: a modified leaflike structure occurring in the inflorescence bot

bracteole: a little bract borne on the flowerstalk above the bract and below the calyx bot

bran: compromises aleuron and pericarp cell layers; the bran and germ are separated during milling agr meth

branch: an axillary (lateral) shoot or root bot >>> foxtailing

branch >>> ramify >>> foxtailing

branching >>> ramification >>> foxtailing

branching agent: a substance inducing and/or increasing branching hort >>> foxtailing

brand: a legal trademark registered by a particular company or distributor for its exclusive use in marketing; a product such as seeds or plants seed agr; in plant pathology, a leaf disease caused by a microscopic fungus (e.g., a rust or smut); sometimes names the fungi phyt

brassinosteroid: brassinosteroids are endogenous, plant-growth-promoting natural products with structural similarities to animal steroid hormones; they affect cell elongation and proliferation, distinct from that of auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellic acids, although they interact with them phys >>> biological control

breakage-reunion hypothesis: the classical and generally accepted model of crossing-over by physical breakage and crossways reunion of broken chromatids during meiosis gene

breakpoint: when chromosome mutations occur, the site at which the single or double strand of DNA breaks along a chromosome and/or chromatid cyto gene

breathing root >>> pneumatophore

breed: an artificial mating group derived from a common ancestor or for genetic analysis; in breeding, a line having the character type and qualities of its origin; in general, a group of plants, developed by humans that will not keep their characteristics in the wild

breeder: a person who raises plants primarily for breeding purposes

breeder(’s) seed: seed or vegetative propagating material increased by the originating or sponsoring plant breeder or institution; it represents the true pedigree of the variety; it is used for the production of genetically pure, foundation, registered, and certified seeds seed >>> Table 28

breeder’s collection >>> working collection >>> stock

breeder’s preference: a general impression by the breeder concerning a material that is under selection meth >>> Table 33

breeder’s rights: varietal protection; the legal rights of a breeder, owner, or developer in controlling seed production and marketing of crop varieties >>> PPA and PVPA

breeding: the propagation and genetic modification of organisms for the purpose of selecting improved offspring; several techniques of hybridization and selection are applied meth >>> Table 35

breeding cycle: the shortest period between successive generations from germination of a seed to reproduction of the progeny, i.e., the seed-to-seed cycle meth

breeding line: a group of plants with similar traits that have been selected for their special combination of traits from hybrid or other populations; it may be released or used for further breeding approaches meth

breeding method >>> breeding system

breeding orchard: a planting of selected trees, usually clonally or grafted propagated; it is designed to ease breeding work meth

breeding population: a group of individuals selected from a wild, experimental, or crossing population for use in a breeding program; usually phenotypically selected for desirable traits meth >>> Table 35

breeding rotation >>> breeding cycle

breeding size: the number of individuals in a population involved in reproduction during particular generations and breeding procedures meth

breeding strategy: prescription for breeding; a sound breeding strategy searches for an optimal compromise between genetic gain, gene diversity, cost, time and other factors meth

breeding system: the system by which a species reproduces; more specifically, the organization of mating that determines the degree of similarity and/or difference between gametes effective in fertilization meth >>> Figure 31 >>> Table 35

breeding true: producing offspring with phenotypes for particular characters that are identical to those of the parents; homozygous individuals necessarily breed true, whereas heterozygotes rarely do so meth gene

breeding value: the value of an individual as defined by the mean value of its progeny, either on the basis of individual traits or a selection index meth

breeding zone: an area within which a single population of improved trees can be planted without fear of misadaptation fore

brevicollate: short necked bot

brick grit test: a type of seedling emergence (vigor) test utilizing uniformly crushed brick gravel through which seedlings must emerge to be considered vigorous; it was originally developed by HILTNER and IHSSEN (1911) for detecting seed-borne Fusarium infection in cereals; with modifications, the seeds are planted on damp brick grit or in a container of sand covered with 3 cm of damp brick grit, then germinated in darkness at room temperature of a specific time seed

bridge-breakage-fusion-bridge cycle: a process that can arise from the formation of dicentric chromosomes; daughter cells are formed that differ in their content of genetic material due to duplications and/or deletions in the chromosomes cyto gene

bridge parent: a parent that is sexually compatible with two reproductively isolated species and can be used to transfer genes between them meth

bridge-breakage-fusion-bridge cycle: a process that can arise from the formation of dicentric chromosomes; daughter cells are formed that differ in their content of genetic material due to duplications and/or deletions in the chromosomes cyto gene

bridge grafting: when a trunk of fruit trees is damaged by various means and the bark is removed the bridge graft is a method of repairing a girdled trunk; although it can be done by inserting the bridges into cuts made in the wood of the trunk, the common method is to lift the bark and place the exposed cambiums of scion and stock together; it is thus usually a bark graft and is not done until May; in this case it is necessary to collect the dormant scions earlier and store them until the repairs are to be made; healthy, matured suckers of hardy varieties are suitable; where one-quarter or less of the trunk circumference has been girdled, the necessity of bridge grafting may be doubtful, but a wound dressing applied in early spring is always helpful, even to these less extensive injuries; trees which have been in the orchard less than 4 years are usually too small for successful bridge grafting; if they are completely girdled, or nearly so, and there is still a collar of live bark above the graft union, saw the top off at a point immediately below the injury; apple, pear, and plum will develop a new top without grafting; cherry and peach are unlikely to do so; they require grafting of scions on the remaining trunks, or preferably the planting of a new tree; apple, pear, and plum, when cut back, will produce many shoots; these shoots should not be thinned until they are a year old, then only the most suitable ones should be retained; of the numerous methods of bridge grafting, the channel or inlay method is generally preferred; the two possible locations of the channel depend on whether or not the wound has been treated previously with a protective covering; where the wound has been covered some time before the grafting operation, the channels must be well above and below the treated area; prepare the scions with the bevel on the side opposite the natural bow of the wood; when a scion has been cut to the proper length and bevelled for 5 to 8 cm at each end, it is laid over the wound in the position it is to occupy; by outlining the scions on the bark of the stock with the knife point, an almost perfect fit of the scions in the channels is possible; the distance between the extremities of the channels should be slightly less than the length of the scion, allowing for a slight bow of the scion when the job is completed; this slight bend allows better contact of scion and stock and reduces the danger of breaking connections if the tree sways with the wind; with a screwdriver or similar tool, lift and remove the strips of bark from the channels; place the lower (thicker) end of the scion in the bottom channel and nail it there with two 2.5 cm box or basket nails; then spring the upper end into position and nail it similarly; place scions about 5 cm apart over the injured area and then cover all wounded surfaces thoroughly with a good quality grafting compound that will not shrink or crack meth hort

bridging species: a species used in a bridging cross in order to bring together the two incompatible species eco

bristle: a stiff, sharp hair bot

broad-base terrace: a low embankment that is constructed across a slope to reduce runoff and/or erosion (e.g., in rice or grape cultivation) agr hort

broadcast: scattered upon the ground with the hand (e.g., in sowing seed, instead of sowing in drills or rows) meth agr hort

broadleaf: sometimes used to designate a broad group of nongrasslike (weedy) plants agr bot

broad-sense heritability: the ratio of total genetic variance to phenotypic variance; it is used to estimate the degree of genetic control of a trait in a population, and it is useful for predicting response to clonal selection stat meth


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brush: the tuft of hair at the top of, for example, wheat grain; or a collective term that refers to stands of vegetation dominated by shrubby, woody plant, or low-growing trees bot >>> Figure 25 >>> coma


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bulk screening: a technique for obtaining a fair degree of homozygosity for the purposes of late selection; a heterozygous population of an inbreeding species is multiplied for several generations in the field with minimal or zero selection in the early stages;such early selection as does occur involves only single gene characters such as marker genes; however, >>> single seed descent in a greenhouse is usually preferable, because it is faster meth

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