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... more 10.000 glossed keywords and links to more than 100 figures and schemes, about 100 tables etc. can be obtained in addition to this limited INTERNET version or in modified design as book by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA

n: the symbol for the haploid chromosome number

NAC >>> N-acetylcysteine

N-acetylcysteine (NAC): an acetylated form of the amino acid L-cystein; it is a precursor to glutathione, a powerful antioxidant present in all cells; N-acetylcysteine is well absorbed and is incorporated into glutathione once in the cells; it is able to raise glutathione levels better than glutathione supplementation by itself; glutathione is a tripeptide made up of three amino acids, glycine, L-cysteine and L-glutamate; it functions as a coenzyme in many biochemical reactions chem biot

naked (barley or oats): mutant varieties that thresh free from their husk in contrast to conventional varieties where the husk is held firmly to the grain; molecular studies in barley revealed that naked barley has a monophyletic origin, probably in southwestern Iran; in barley, a single recessive gene, nud, controls the naked caryopsis character, and is located on the long arm of chromosome 7H bot evol

NAM >>> nested association mapping

nanometer: equals 10–9 meter equals 1 Ångström phy >>> measures

nanovirus >>> geminivirus

nap: large masses of curled and loosely matted fibers found in raw cotton agr

naphthalene acetic acid (NAA): a synthetic auxin chem phys

napiform: turniplike in form bot

narrow wing: the smaller of the two parts of, for example, the wheat glume, which are separated by the keel bot

narrow-leafed >>> angustifoliate

nastic movement >>> nasty

nasty: the response of a plant organ to a nondirectional stimulus (e.g., light); it is facilitated by changes in cell growth or changes in turgor bot phys

native >>> indigenous

native breed >>> landrace

native DNA: double-stranded DNA isolated from a cell with its hydrogen bonds between strands intact, as opposed to denatured DNA gene biot

natural cross-pollination: >>>cross-pollination that occurs naturally, as opposed to artificial or hand-pollination bot

natural selection: a complex process in which the total environment determines which members of a species survive to reproduce and so pass on their genes to the next generation gene

nature reserve: an area of land set aside for nature conservation and associated scientific research, usually with strong legal protection against other uses eco

N banding: a special chromosome staining method related to C banding, which reveals specific types of heterochromatin; the pattern of bands and interbands along a chromosome serves as a tool for chromosome or chromosome segment identification; the method was successfully applied in wheat cyto >>> C banding

near-isogenic lines: not fully isogenic, for example, in maize, two distinct composites of F3 lines from a single cross, one consisting of lines homozygous recessive and the other consisting of lines homozygous dominant for a certain gene (i.e., there is same genetic background), however, differing only in being homozygous dominant versus recessive for the genes; in wheat, near-isogenic lines were produced for different Rht (reduced height) genes causing different straw length gene

neck: the uppermost part of the culm between the flagleaf sheath and the collar bot

necrosis: death of plant tissue, which is usually accompanied by discoloration or becoming dark in color; commonly a symptom of fungus infection phys

necrotrophic pathogen(e): a fungal pathogen that causes the immediate death of the host cells as it passes through them; a colonizer of dead tissue phyt

nectar: a sticky, sometimes sweet, secretion of flowers, which has an attraction for insects bot

nectar gland >>> nectarium >>> nectary

nectarine: a variety of peach having a smooth, downless skin bot hort >>> peach

nectarium >>> nectary

nectary: refers to a sugar-secreting gland; nectaries are usually situated at the base of a flower, sometimes in a spur, in order to attract pollinators; nectaries can also be extrafloral (e.g., the gland spin of certain cacti where they attract seed dispersal insects, such as ants) bot

needle: a linear, commonly pungent leaf bot

negative (selection) marker(s): with negative selection markers it ispossible to achieve genetically modified plants, which no longer contain the marker genes necessary for transformation procedure; once the transformed cells have been identified with the help of the marker genes, these are no longer required in the genetically modified plant; by use of a "chemical signal”, plants can be separated out that carry the marker gene; e.g., the enzyme N-acetylphosphinothricin deacetylase (DEA) serves as the negative selection marker; it converts a substance, which is non-toxic to the plant into one which is toxic; in the case of DEA, an inactive form of a herbicide (N-acetylphosphinothricin) is converted into an active herbicide (phosphinothricin), which attacks the plant’s central metabolism and kills it; if the transgenic progeny are treated with the inactive herbicide, those that carry the negative DEA selection marker will die; those plants that are not sensitive to the inactive herbicide remain unaffected; they are marker-gene-free meth biot >>> marker


negative screening: a screening technique designed to identify and eliminate the least desirable plants, as opposed to positive screening, which involves identifying and preserving the most desirable plants; the technique is often used with >>> recurrent mass selection, in which the undesirables are weeded out, and the best plants are left to cross-pollinate meth

neighbor design: a design in which there is a concept of elements of a block being "neighbors", so that every pair of elements occur as neighbors in a block the same number of times stat

neighborhood: a partially isolated subpopulation with a certain degree of inbreeding; it may arise when a large population splits into subpopulations by inbreeding effects eco

nema >>> eelworm

nematicid: a substance or preparation used for killing nematodes parasitic to plants phyt

nematode: a microscopic soil worm that may attack roots or other structures of cereal, sugarbeet, potato, and other plants and cause extensive damage phyt >>> eelworm

neocentric: secondary centromeres, that under certain conditions, show movement as the primary centromere; sometimes they are observed on chromosome ends when they move toward the poles during anaphase of meiosis I cyto

neocentric activity >>> neocentric

neo-Darwinian evolution: evolutionary theory incorporating Darwinism and Mendelian genetics bio evol

neomorph: alleles that show qualitatively different effects compared to the wild-type allele gene

neomycin: an aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae that functions by interfering with ribosomal activity and so causing errors in the reading of the mRNA chem phys gene

neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT): an enzyme used in gene transfer experiments as a reporter for transient gene expression chem phys biot

neotuberosum: >>> potatoes that resulted from an experimental breeding of Solanum andigena in order to confirm that it is the original parent of S. tuberosum; the change is complete after a mere five generations of >>> recurrent mass selection; thus the neotuberosum has provided a considerably widened genetic base for breeding approaches meth

nervation (of leaf): the arrangement of veins in a leaf bot

nervature >>> nervation

nerve: the line, usually raised, on the surface of a lemma or glume marking the presence of conducting tissue below the surface bot

nervure >>> leaf vein >>> nervation

nested association mapping (NAM): an integrated mapping strategy that allows genome-wide high-resolution mapping in a cost-effective way; it greatly facilitate complex trait dissection in many species; it is used as a large-scale maize mapping resource and as genomics and bioinformatics tool; it requires large amounts of SNPs and/or individuals, and it is sensitive to genetic heterogeneity stat meth biot

nested block design: is one in which the set of plots is partitioned into blocks, each of which is partitioned into sub-blocks stat meth >>> split-plot design

nest planting: setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot meth

netting: covering plots or individual plants with nets in order to prevent bird damage meth

niche: the functional position of an organism in its environment, comprising the habitat in which the organism lives, the period of time during which it occurs, and the resources it obtains there eco

nick: the two parents for producing hybrid seed when they produce high yields of seed of a highly productive and desirable hybrid; in breeding, synchronization of the receptivity of the female organ to the maximum pollen load of the pollinator for cross-fertilization meth; in molecular genetics, a single-strand break of DNA gene biot >>> nick translation

nicking: synchronization of the receptivity of the male sterile plant to the maximum pollen load of the pollinator for cross pollination in hybrid seed production seed meth

nick translation: a technique by which a DNA molecule is radioactively labeled with high specificity; such labeled DNA is used by different DNA hybridization methods as a probe (e.g., Southern transfer); within a double-stranded DNA several single-strand breaks (nicks) are produced by DNase hydrolysis; each break or gap is extended by 5'>3' exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I; the removed 5' nucleotides are immediately substituted by the polymerase activity of the same exonuclease; however, now 32P-deoxynucleotides are used, which label the newly synthesized DNA gene biot

nick-translated >>> nick translation

nicotianamide: a soluble crystal amide of nicotinic acid that is a component of the vitamin B complex chem phys

nicotine: a colorless, oily, water-soluble, highly toxic liquid alkaloid, C10H14N2, found in tobacco and valued as an insecticide chem phys >>> biological control

nif genes: the genetic designation of genes participating in the process of nitrogen fixation; about 17 genes are organized in the nif operon; by the nif genes produced proteins the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) will be fixed as NH4+ and NO3 ions; many soil bacteria may fix atmospheric nitrogen; there are many research activities dealing with the transfer of the bacterial system of nitrogen fixation into crop plants other than legumes gene biot

nitrification: the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate by chemolithotrophic bacteria chem phys

nitrocellulose: a nitrated derivative of cellulose; it is used in the form of a membrane as a filter for macromolecules in blotting techniques prep meth

nitrocellulose filter: a filter made up of nitrocellulose membrane prep >>> nitrocellulose

nitrogen (N): an element that is essential to all plants; it is found reduced and covalently bound in many organic compounds and its chemical properties are especially important in the structure of proteins and nucleic acids; deficiency causes chlorosis and etiolation chem phys

nitrogenase: an enzyme complex that catalyzes the reduction of molecular nitrogen in the nitrogen-fixation process in which dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia chem phys

nitrogen consumers: a crop plant in the crop rotation that takes nitrogen up from soil, as opposed to plants (e.g., legumes) that provide nitrogen to the soil by their nitrogen fixation activity agr >>> nitrogen fixation

nitrogen fixation: the reduction of gaseous molecular nitrogen and its incorporation into nitrogenous compounds; it is facilitated by lighting, photochemical fixation in the atmosphere, and by the action of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (bacteria) chem phys agr

NMS >>> nuclear male sterility

nobilization: a term used in the breeding of sugarcane to indicate repeated matings (backcrossing) to the “noble” canes (i.e., restoring intergeneric Saccharum hybrids to the phenotype of Saccharum officinarum) agr

nocturnal: during the hours of darkness, as opposed to diurnal phys

nodal bud: the lateral shoot bud located within the root ring at the node bot

node: a slightly enlarged portion of a stem where leaves and buds arise, and where branches originate bot

nodulation: in legumes, species of Rhizobium bacteria fixing nitrogen of the air in association with the roots on which they are the cause of swellings (nodules) bot agr


nodule: a small, hard lump or swelling; root nodules are characteristic of Rhizobium infection and nitrogen fixation in legumes bot

nodule bacteria: it refers to several species of nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria, which form ball-like nodules along legume roots bot agr

nodus >>> node

nominal scale: a scale for scoring quantitative data using a series of predefined values (e.g., flower color) stat

noncoding DNA: a certain portion of DNA that obviously does not determine a gene product, such as a protein and/or character gene

nonconjunction: the failure of metaphase chromosome pairing during meiosis cyto

nondemanding variety >>> low-input variety

nondisjunction: the failure of separation of paired chromosomes at metaphase, resulting in one daughter cell receiving both and the other daughter cell none of the chromosomes in question; it can occur both in meiosis and mitosis cyto

nonhomologous association: pairing of chromosomes, which obviously are not homologous, however, it is presumed that cryptically homologous segments allow the chromosome association cyto

nonhomologous chromosomes: the different chromosomes of a haploid chromosome set, which usually cannot pair with another cyto

nonhost resistance: inability of a pathogen to infect a plant because the plant is not a host of the pathogen due to lack of something in the plant that the pathogen needs or to the presence of substances incompatible with the pathogen phyt

nonimmune >>> susceptible

noninfectious disease: a disease that is caused by an abiotic agent (i.e., by an environmental factor, not by a pathogen) phyt

non-Mendelian inheritance: an unusual ratio of progeny phenotypes that does not reflect the simple operation of Mendel’s law, for example, mutant: wild-type ratios of 3 : 5, 5 : 3, 6 : 2, or 2 : 6, indicate that gene conversion has occurred; in general, it refers to extrachromosomal and/or nonchromosomal inheritance gene

nonparametric tests: these are tests that do not make distributional assumptions, particularly the usual distributional assumptions of the normal-theory-based tests; nonparametric tests usually drop the assumption that the data come from normally distributed populations stat

nonpedigreed crop: a crop for which a crop certificate has not been issued or recognized by the official organization seed

nonpreference: a term used to describe a resistance mechanism where parasites prefer to be on some host genotypes more than others; the less preferred genotypes are resistant phyt >>> antixenosis

nonrandom mating: a mating system in which the frequencies of the various kinds of matings with respect to some trait or traits are different from those expected according to chance gene

nonrecurrent apomixis: it refers to occasional apomixis, usually caused by haploid parthenogenesis bot

nonrecurrent parent: a parent that is not involved in a backcross meth

nonsense codon: a codon that does not determine an amino acid; it may terminate the translation gene >>> stop codon

nonsampling error: the term is used to describe variations in the estimates that may be caused by population coverage limitations, as well as data collection, processing, and reporting procedures stat

nonsense mutation: a mutation that alters a gene so that a nonsense codon is inserted; such a codon is one for which no normal tRNA molecule exists, therefore it does not code for an amino acid; usually nonsense codons cause the termination of translation; several nonsense codons are recognized (e.g., amber, ochre, opal) gene

nonsense suppressor: a mutation in tRNA that leads to the insertion of an amino acid at the position of a “stop” codon and often restores enzyme activity in nonsense mutations biot

nonsibling chromatid: a chromatid that derives from the other homologue of the two homologous chromosomes or from nonhomologous chromosomes of the complement cyto

nonsister chromatid >>> nonsibling chromatid

nonspecific resistance >>> horizontal resistance

nontill rotation: a method of planting crops that involves no seedbed preparation in the rotation other than opening small areas in the soil for placing seed at the intended depth; moreover, there is no cultivation during crop production, despite chemicals that are used for vegetation control agr

nonuniform resistance >>> resistance

nopaline: a rare derivate of an amino acid; it is produced in some crown galls of plants; the controlling genes are part of the T-DNA of Ti plasmids gene phys

norm: the description of the characteristics of a variety as supplied by the breeder; also known as a variety description seed

norm of reaction >>> range of reaction

normal curve >>> normal distribution

normal distribution: the most commonly used probability distribution in statistics; in nature, a vast number of continuous distributions are normally distributed; a continuous symmetrical bell-shaped frequency distribution stat

normalized Latin square: a >>> Latin square with symbol set 1,...,n, in which the first row and column contain the symbols in their usual order; any Latin square can be normalized by permuting rows and columns stat meth

normalizing selection: the removal of genes and/or alleles that produce deviations from the normal phenotype of a population meth

Northern blot >>> Northern blotting

Northern blotting: a procedure analogous to Southern blotting, but transferring RNA from a gel to a carrier (like nitrocellulose) instead of DNA gene meth

novel plant >>> intergeneric cross

novel variety: it refers to seed, transplants or plants showing sufficient distinctness in the sense that the variety clearly differs by one or more identifiable morphological, physiological, or other characteristics seed

noxious: injurious (e.g., a noxious weed is one that crowds out desirable crops, robs them of plant food and moisture and causes extra labor in cultivation) agr

noxious weeds: undesirable plants that infest either land or water resources and cause physical and economic damage agr >>> noxious

NPK analysis: the analysis of the ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in an organic soil amendment agr phys

N-type: in sugarbeet breeding, varieties with normal sugar content and normal yielding capacity (N = Normal) seed

nucellar embryony: a way of parthenogenesis in which the embryo arises directly from the nucellus bot

nucellus: the mass of tissue in the ovule of a plant that contains the embryo sac; size and shape can be diagnostic for species bot

nuclear division: the division of the cell nucleus by mitosis, meiosis, or amitosis cyto

nuclear division cycle: the sequence of stages of the division of the nucleus cyto

nuclear dye >>> nuclear stain

nuclear envelope >>> nuclear membrane

nuclear fragmentation: the degeneration of the nucleus by partition of the nucleus into more or less different parts cyto

nuclear gene: a gene that is located on the chromosome of the nucleus gene

nuclear male sterility (NMS): refers to male sterility that is determined by nuclear genes, as opposed to cytoplasmic male sterility gene seed

nuclear membrane: the structure that separates the nucleus of eukaryotic cells from the cytoplasm; it comprises two unit membranes each 10 nm thick, separated by a perinuclear space of 10-40 nm; at intervals, the two membranes are fused around the edges of circular pores, which allow for the selective passage of materials into and out of the nucleus bot

nuclear pore: it allows the selective passage of materials into and out of the nucleus bot >>> nuclear membrane

nuclear sap: a nonstaining or slightly stainable liquid or semiliquid substance of the interphase nucleus cyto

nuclear stain: usually, basic dyes such as methylene blue, methylgreen, crystal violet, greenpuron, or azure B bromide that bind preferentially to the cell nuclei (i.e., chromosomes and nucleolus) with slight cytoplasmic effect micr meth cyto

nuclear staining >>> nuclear stain

nuclear transplantation: the transfer of a nucleus into the cytoplasm of another cell biot

nuclease: any enzyme that degrades DNA and RNA gene >>> endonuclease >>> exonuclease

nucleic acid: nucleotide polymers with high relative molecular mass, produced by living cells and found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm; they occur in two forms (DNA and RNA) and may be double- or single-stranded; DNA embodies the genetic code of a cell or organelle, while various forms of RNA function in the transcriptional and translational aspects of protein synthesis gene

nucleolar chromosome: the chromosome that carries the nucleolus organizer (region); it may also be called a satellite chromosome cyto

nucleolar constriction: that region of a chromosome that carries the nucleolus organizer; besides the centromeric region it is observed as a secondary constriction along particular chromosomes; it is not stained by the standard chromosome techniques; by the nucleolar constriction the chromosome arm appears divided into two parts; the terminal part is called satellite, the whole chromosome is called the satellite chromosome cyto

nucleolar dominance >>> amphiplasty

nucleolar organizer: a region on a loop of DNA emanating from a chromosome in the nucleolus and around which rRNA genes are clustered; it is involved in the regulation of chromosome behavior cyto

nucleolar zone syn nucleolus organizer region (NOR): a chromosome region that is associated with the formation of the nucleolus during telophase cyto >>> nucleolar constriction

nucleolin: one of the nonribosomal proteins; it is considered to play a key role in regulation of rDNA transcription, perisomal synthesis, ribosomal assembly, and maturation; it influences the nucleolar chromatin structure through its interaction with DNA and histones; it is involved in cytoplasmic-nucleolar transport of preribosomal particles phys >>> ribonucleoprotein

nucleolus: a clearly defined, often spherical area of the eukaryotic nucleus, composed of densely packed fibrils and granules; its composition is similar to that of chromatin, except that it is very rich in RNA and protein; it is the site of the synthesis of ribosomal RNA; the assembly of ribosomes starts in the nucleolus but is completed in the cytoplasm cyto

nucleolus organizer >>> nucleolar organizer

nucleolus organizer region (NOR) >>> nucleolar zone

nucleoprotein: a conjugated protein, composed of a histone or protamine bound to a nucleic acid as the nonprotein portion cyto

nucleosid(e): a glycoside that is composed of ribose or deoxyribose sugar bound to a purine or pyrimidine base chem gene

nucleosome >>> karyosome

nucleotide: a nucleoside that is bound to a phosphate group through one of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar; it is the unit structure of nucleic acids chem gene


nucleotide pair: a pair of nucleotides joined by hydrogen bond that are present on complementary strands of DNA gene


nucleotide sequence: the order of nucleotides along a DNA or RNA strand gene


nucleotide synthesis >>> biotechnology

nucleus: the double-membrane-bound organelle containing the chromosomes that is found in most nondividing eukaryotic cells; it disappears temporarily during cell division; within the nucleus several independent approaches point to the compartmentalization of particular activities such as transcription, RNA processing, and replication; chromosomes are revealed to occupy defined domains and to represent highly differentiated structures; the numerous activities that use DNA and RNA as a template occur with a defined spatial and temporal relationship (e.g., compartmentalization of nuclear functions is particularly seen with replication); DNA moves through a fixed architecture containing the molecular machines directing replication cyto >>> Figure 25

nucleus breeding: breeding scheme where populations in breeding cycle are divided into intensively managed nucleus with top-ranking genotypes and less intensively managed genetically less advanced main population meth fore

null allele: a “silent” allele without an obvious expression gene

null hypothesis: a hypothesis that there is no discrepancy between observation and expectation based on some sets of postulates stat

null hypothesis test: the standard hypothesis used in testing the statistical significance of the difference between the means of samples drawn from two populations; the null hypothesis states that there is no difference between the populations from which the samples are drawn; one then determines the probability that one will find a difference equal to or greater than the one actually observed; if this probability is 0.05 or less, the null hypothesis is rejected and the difference is said to be statistically significant stat

null mutation: a mutation that eliminates all enzymatic activity, usually deletion mutations biot

nulli-haploid: a cell or individual that possesses a haploid chromosome set plus a missing single chromosome cyto >>> Figure 37

nulliplex type: the condition in which a polyploid carries a recessive gene at a particular locus in all homologues; simplex denotes that the dominant gene is represented one, duplex two, triplex three, quadruplex four times, etc. gene >>> autotetraploid >>> Table 3

nullisome: a plant lacking both members of one specific pair of chromosomes cyto >>> Figure 37

nullisomic >>> nullisome

nullisomic analysis: in nullisomic analysis, observations are made for phenotypic or other differences between the nullisomic for each chromosome and the disomic condition within the same variety; the method is applied for localization of genes within a given genome; the method can only be used in polyploids, while diploids commonly do not tolerate the loss of both homologous chromosomes gene meth >>> Figure 37

nulli(somic)-tetrasomic line >>> nulli-tetrasomic

nullisomy >>> nullisome

nulli-tetrasomic: a cell or individual, usually an allopolyploid, that possesses one lacking pair of chromosomes, which is partially compensated by a tetrasomic (four-fold dosage) of another, usually homoeologous, chromosome; a whole series of nulli-tetrasomics was produce in hexaploid wheat, and successfully used in numerous genetic and molecular studies cyto >>> Figure 37

null mutation: a mutation, which eliminates all enzymatic activity, usually deletion mutations biot

numeric aberration: the variation of the number of genomes or chromosomes, for example, ploidy variation, aneuploids (nullisomics, monosomics, trisomics, tetrasomics, etc.), substitutions, or additions cyto >>> Figure 37

numerical aperture (NA): relationship between the objective light collection angle (a) and the refractive index (h) of the medium between the objective and specimen (NA = h × sin q) micr

numeric constancy of chromosomes: the constant inheritance of the same number of chromosomes from generation to generation, which is facilitated by the mitotic and meiotic mechanisms evol

numerical taxonomy: the classification of related organisms using a multitude of characteristics, each one of which is given equal weight; the degree of similarity between them is calculated using a digital computer, which treats the data collected for all characters and determines the similarities taking all possible pairs tax

nurse crop >>> companion crop

nurse culture: a culture technique or the callus upon which a filter paper is placed separating single cells from the callus in the paper raft technique; the callus (i.e., the nurse tissue) releases growth factors and nutrients that induce growth in the single cells supported by the filter paper and sharing the communal environment biot

nursery:a place where plants are grown for sale, transplanting, or experimentation, e.g., young trees or other plants are raised, either for propagation or for testing and observations agr

nurseryman’s tape >>> grafting tape

nut: a dry, indehiscent, woody fruit bot

nutation: the turning of a plant or plant organ toward light bot

nutlet: a little nut (e.g., in strawberry) bot >>> nut

nutrient: a nutritive substance or ingredient, such as major and minor mineral elements, necessary for plant growth and development as well as the organic addenda such as sugars, vitamins, amino acids, and others employed in plant tissue culture media phys biot >>> Table 33

nutrient-enhanced varieties (crops): plants that have been modified to possess novel traits that make those plants more economically valuable for nutritional uses (e.g., higher than normal protein content in feedgrains; high-zinc content or high-glutenin in wheat; high-amylose, high-lysine, high-methionine high-oil in maize; high-phytase in maize and soybeans; high-oleic oil, high-stearate, high-sucrose in soybeans) biot seed

nutriomics: a new frontier in plant biology that can provide innovative solutions for improving plant nutrient efficiency, thus increasing crop productivity through genetic and molecular approaches biot

nutritional mutant >>> nutrient-enhanced varieties

nutritive substance >>> nutrient

nutritive value index: a measure for daily digestible amount of forage per unit of metabolic body size relative to a standard forage; it is used as a selection criterion in forage crop breeding meth agr >>> Table 33

nyctanthous: flowering by night bot

nymph: the immature stage of certain insects whose growing young resemble the parents in body form zoo phyt

© by R. Schlegel 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019