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... more 10.000 glossed keywords and links to more than 100 figures and schemes, about 100 tables etc. can be obtained in addition to this limited INTERNET version or in modified design as book by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA

Z chromosome: a sex chromosome that is limited to the male sex cyto

ZADE method >>> long-plot design

zDNA: a left-handed, alternate form of double-stranded NA in which the backbone phosphates zigzag gene

zeatin: a mitogen isolated from maize kernels chem phys >>> Table 15

zein: a storage protein of maize found in the endosperm chem phys >>> Table 15

ZELENY test: a test to measure the protein quality; the grain is milled to form a white flour and mixed with a suspension agent; the resulting suspension volume is then measured in millimeters; for example, wheats with a ZELENY volume between 20 and 30 are acceptable (<19 low; 25 medium; 35 high; 45 very high, >50 extremely high) meth


zenia >>> metaxenia

zero tillage: system to improve soil conservation where the new crop is planted stubble of the previous crop with even less soil disturbance than with minimum tillage agr meth

zinc (Zn): a blue-white metallic element that is a trace element (essential element) that is required by plants; it is found in various enzymes; it functions as the prosthetic group of a number of enzymes; deficiency prevents expansion of leaves and internodes, giving a rosette style of plant chem phys

zinc fertilizer(s) - Zinkdünger m: compounds of zinc used to provide Zn for crop nutrition, e.g.,  zinc sulphates ZnSO4.7H2O, (21% Zn) and ZnSO4.H2O (33% Zn), Zn-EDTA chelate (12% Zn), zinc oxide ZnO (78% Zn), zinc frits (variable Zn content) and natural Zn chelates chem agr

zinc finger (protein): a protein motif involved in the recognition of DNA; the structure contains a complex zinc ion and consists of an antiparallel protein-chain hairpin and loop followed by a helix gene

zone of hybridization: a geographical area in which different plant taxa have the same habitat allowing spontaneous intercrossing if some sexual and reproductive prerequisites are given (e.g., in the evolution of hexaploid wheat such zones of hybridization played in important role), for example, Aegilops species intercrossed with primitive wheats in Asia Minor eco

zoom: to control, by magnifying or reducing, the size of an image, either optically or electronically micr

zoospore: temporarily mobile sex organs of some lower plants (e.g., in Vaucheria sessilis) bot

Z-type: in sugarbeet breeding varieties with high sugar content (Z = Zucker = sugar) but normal yielding capacity agr

zygomere: hypothetical pairing sites along the chromosomes; for example, it is suggested that in barley the zygomeres are located proximal, as opposed to rye by which the zygomeres are located terminal cyto

zygomorphic: the condition of having only one plan of symmetry (e.g., orchid flowers) bot

zygomorphic corolla: dorsiventral carolla; a flower composed by one symmetric axis (e.g., Antirrhinum majus) bot

zygonema >>> zygotene

zygote: the fertilized ovum formed from the fusion of male and female gametes; a diploid zygote is formed by the union of a sperm nucleus of the pollen with the egg cell of the embryo sac; the zygote divides mitotically to form the embryo of the seed; union of a sperm nucleus with the two polar nuclei of the embryo sac results in a triploid (3n) cell that divides mitotically to form the endosperm of the seed bot >>> Figure 25

zygotene: the stage of first meiosis when the homologous chromosomes are associating side by side (synapse); for example, a diploid crop species with 2n = 20 chromosomes would form ten pairs of homologous chromosomes cyto

zygotic >>> zygote

zygotic embryo: an embryo that derives from fusion of male and female gametes bot

zymogens: the enzymatically inactive precursors of certain proteolytic enzymes; the enzymes are inactive because they contain an extra piece of peptide chain; when this peptide is hydrolyzed by another proteolytic enzyme the zymogen is converted into the normal, active enzyme phys

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