Crops IV
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... more 10.000 glossed keywords and links to more than 100 figures and schemes, about 100 tables etc. can be obtained in addition to this limited INTERNET version either on CD-ROM or in modified design as book by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA

sage: Salvia officinalis (Labiatae) hort

sago palm - Sagopalme f: several species are used in Southeast Asia and Polynesia for the production of sago; the starch is extracted from the pith of a palm stem that is about 15 years old, Metroxylon sagu (Palmae) hort agr fore

safflower: it was originally grown for the dye extracted from its florets and as minor oil crop; Carthamus tinctorius (Compositae), 2n = 2x, BB = 24 hort

saffron - Safran m: the wild progenitors of the saffron crocus are extinct, and this is an indication of its antiquity; the cultivated crocus does not set seed, and, it can be propagated only by corms; multiplication of the crop is a very slow process because only two or three new corms are formed each year at the base of the old corm; yellowish-orange dye is made from elongate stigmas and tips of styles; saffron contains the glycoside crocin (derived from the diterpene crocetin); 4,000 stigmas yields about 30 g of dye; it is the basis of French bouillabaisse, Spanish paella, English saffron buns, Jewish gilderne, Russian challah, Indian zaffrani chawal, and Persian sholezard, Crocus sativus (Iridaceae) hort

sainfoin: Onobrychis viciifolia (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x, 4x = 14, 28 agr

saltbush: Atriplex ssp. (Chenopodiaceae) bot agr

salsify: the plant habit is similar to black salsify to which it is related; however, its flowers are not yellow but light red; the roots are white; because of its fine smell, which is released during cooking, it is also called vegetable oyster; roots are harvested during the first year, flowering happens during the second year, Tragopogon porrifolius (Compositae) hort >>> Picture 001

san chi: Gynura pinnatifida (Compositae), 2n = 2x = 20 hort

sanwa millet >>> barnyard grass

sapodilla: Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae), 2n = 2x = 26 hort

sarson >>> yellow-seeded sarson

savila: it used in many countries of Africa, Canary Islands and America as a herb plant, already described 2.500 years BC, Aloe vera (Aloaceae) hort agr

savory: Satureja hortensis (Labiatae) hort

Savoy cabbage: Brassica oleracea var. sabauda (Brassicaceae) hort >>> Figure 8

scabious: Scabiosa ssp. (Dipsacaceae) bot agr

scarlet runner bean >>> kidney beans

scorzonera >>> black salsify

Scots pine: Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae) fore >>> pine

scurvy grass: a common plant in  western and northern Europe with perennial growth habit; particularly, it grows along salt lakes; because of the high content of vitamin C, leaves were used as vegetable; in the past, sailors kept it on board, Cochlearia officinalis (Brassicaceae) hort >>> Picture 007

sea barley: Hordeum marinum (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 14 bot agr

seakale: Crambe maritima (Brassicaceae) hort

sea lavender: Limonium sinuatum (Plumbaginaceae) hort

sea lyme grass: Leymus arenarius (Gramineae) bot agr

sea oats: a C4 perennial grass capable of stabilizing sand dunes; it is most abundant along the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern Atlantic coastal regions of the USA; the species exhibits low seed set and low rates of germination and seedling emergence, and so extensive clonal reproduction is achieved through production of rhizomes, which may contribute to a decline in genetic diversity; in general, the sea oats plants exhibited a low range of genetic similarity, Uniola paniculata hort agr

sea sand-reed >>> beach grass

sequoia: Sequoia gigantia, S. sempervirens (Taxodiaceae), 2n = 2x, 4x, 6x (AAAABB) = 22, 44, 66; mitochondria are paternally inherited fore

seradella - Seradella f: Ornithopus sativus (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 14 agr

serpent gourd (snake gourd syn chichinga syn padwal) - Schlangengurke f: tropical or subtropical vine, raised for its strikingly long fruit, used as a vegetable, medicine, and, a lesser known use, crafting didgeridoos; the narrow, soft-skinned fruit can reach 150 cm long; its soft, bland, somewhat mucilaginous flesh is similar to that of the >>> luffa and the >>> calabash; it is most popular in the cuisine of South Asia and Southeast Asia; the shoots, tendrils, and leaves are also eaten as greens; it was probably domesticated in ancient times in India, from where non-bitter and large-fruited types may have migrated to other tropical areas; the fully mature fruit contains a soft, red, tomato-like pulp; Trichosanthes cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort

serpent root >>> black salsify

sesame - Sesam m: also called as sesame, simsim, beniseed, gingelly, and till;the cultivated sesame (edible sesame) has been differentiated into about 3,000 varieties and strains, distributed extensively from the tropical to temperate zones in the world; the crop is self-pollinated and it exhibits very great variation in many characteristics; a >>> dehiscent strain is suitable for combine harvesters,  Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae), 2n = 2x = 26 agr

sesbania: used as a green manure crop in rice-based cropping systems; it can be grown in the field before the rice crop is sown, then ploughed back into the soil replenishing the nitrogen levels;it is a native legume of West Africa and forms a symbiotic relationship with Azorhizobium caulinodans and is renowned for it's stem nodulation; both stem and root nodules fix nitrogen however root nodules form at the curled root hair while stem nodules occur at the sites of adventitious root primordia via "crack" entry; the stem nodules unlike the root nodules contain functioning chloroplasts in the nodule cortex and are therefore capable of carbon fixation; it has a very fast growth rate, is able to grow in flooded habitats and is very nitrogen rich, Sesbania rostrata (Leguminosae) agr

Seville orange >>> orange

shaddok: Citrus maxima (Rutaceae) hort >>> hesperidia

shallot: Allium cepa var. ascalonicum (Alliaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort

sheep(‘s) fescue - Schafschwingel m: Festuca ovina (Gramineae) agr

short American staple cotton: Gossypium herbaceum (Malvaceae), 2n = 2x, A1 A1 = 26, 2C DNA content 2.1 pg agr

shortleaf pine: Pinus echinate (Pinaceae) fore

shot wheat >>> Indian dwarf wheat

shrubby blackberry: >>> raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common and widely distributed; most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus; the fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets, Rubus fruticosus (Rosaceae), 2n=2x=20 hort

Siberian hazel: Corylus heterophylla (Corylaceae), 2n = 2x = 28 hort

Sieva bean >>> Lima bean

signalgrass: Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae), 2n = 4x = 36 agr >>> palisadegrass

silver birch: Betula pendula (Betulaceae), 2n = 2x = 28 fore >>> birch

silver fir: Abies alba (Pinaceae) fore

silver vine: Actinidia polygama (Actinidiaceae), 2n = 2x, 4x = 58, 116 hort

siratro: a creeping plant having long vines which is grown as a cover crop and also for green manuring; it can also be intercropped with grain legumes; tts growth duration is 150-180 days; it can also be used as forage as it can be cut several times before being ploughed in as a green manure, Macroptilium atropurpureum (Leguminosae) agr

sisal - Sisal(agave) f: once an important bast fibre crop in its centre of origin in Mexico, and also in East Africa (Kenya and Tanzania); sisal has been largely supplanted by synthetic fibres; seed set in sisal is extremely rare and breeding this crop is difficult, Agave sisalana (Agavaceae), 2n = 5x = 138-149 (?) agr >>> Henequen agave

sitka spruce: Picea sitchensis (Pinaceae) fore

skirret: a herbaceous perennial plant from China, first introduced to France; the plant grows up to 1.20 m height and develops a roots similar to dahlia; it flowers white as carrot; the fleshy root tasts sweet and was used as substitute for sugar, Sisum sisarum (Umbelliferae) hort >>> Picture 006

slender foxtail: Alopecurus agrestis (Gramineae) bot agr

slender wheatgrass: Agropyron dasystachyum (Gramineae) bot agr

small-leafed sweet basil >>> sweet basil

small melilot: Melilotus indica (Leguminosae) agr

small radish - Radischen n >>> radish

small timothy: Phleum bertolonii (Gramineae) bot agr

smooth brome - Taube Trespe f: it has become an important cool-season forage grass in North America; in USA about 30 cultivars or experimental populations were produced during the past 50 years, Bromus inermis (Gramineae) bot agr

smooth stalked meadow grass >>> Kentucky blue grass

snap bean >>> French bean

snapdragon - Löwenmaul n: Antirrhinum ssp. (Scrophulariaceae) hort

soft brome: Bromus mollis (Gramineae) bot agr

sorghum - Sorghum m: it is the fifth most important cereal crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, and barley; in 1992, the world planted 45.4 million ha of sorghum with an average yield of 1,532 kg per ha; over 80 % of the area devoted to sorghum lies within Africa and Asia, where average yields were 766 and 1,171 kg per ha, respectively; it originated from Africa about 6,000 years ago; it then spread to India, China, Europe, and America; it is an annual grass with a panicle containing two types of spikelets (pedicelled and sessile); the sessile spikelets contain perfect flowers, the pedicelled spikelets contain flowers that are either male only or sterile; self-pollination is usual; sorghum exhibits the C4 photosynthetic pathway, which is more efficient than the C3 pathway; it is a short-day plant; the sorghum grain is more or less rounded, about 6 mm in diameter often with colored lines; the color varies from white to brown or black; there are four types of Sorghum bicolor. (a) milo - drought resistant, many tillers, early maturing, (b) kafir - thick stalks, large leaves, used for forage and grain, (c) sweet - sweet juice in the stalk, grow up to 3 m height, for animal fodder, (d) broomcorn - has branches, used for making brooms, Sorghum bicolor (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 20; 2C DANN content 1.5-1.7 pg = 750-780 Mb agr >>> millet >>>  Tables 15, 16, 48

sorrel: from numerous sorrel species  several are grown in Europe as vegetable; the vegetable sorrel or English winter spinach (Rumex patienta) is native of southern Europe and Asia Minor; since the 15th century it is grown as vegetable; the garden sorrel (R. acetosa var. hortensis) is still used as garden herb (cv. “Belleville”); the Roman or French sorrel (R. cutatus) is almost not grown anymore; it was particularly used for soups; the Alpine sorrel (R. alpinus) is rarely prepared as spinach or salad; it is also an indicator plant for nitrogen (Polygonaceae) hort >>> Picture 008

sour cherry: Prunus cerasus (Rosaceae), 2n = 4x = 32 hort

soursop: Annona muricata (Annonaceae), 2n = 2x = 14 hort

soya - Soja f >>> soybean

soybean - Sojabohne f: it derives from the wild annual progenitor, G. soja; most genetic diversity is found among 12 wild perennial species, which are indigenous to Australia, South Pacific Islands Taiwan, and southern China; Glycine max (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x, GG = 40; 2C DNA content 3.9 pg = 1100 Mb agr >>> Table 16

spearmint: Mentha arvensis, M. spicata (Labiatae) hort >>> peppermint

speedwell: Veronica ssp. (Scrophulariaceae) bot agr

spikenard >>> aralia

spinach - Spinat m: Spinacia oleracea (Chenopodiaceae), 2n = 2x = 12 hort

spotted medick: Medicago arabica (Leguminosae) agr

spring oilseed rape >>> rapeseed

spring onion >>> Welsh onion

sprouting broccoli: Brassica olearacea convar. Botrytis var. cymosa (Brassicaceae) hort >>> Figure 8

squash - Kürbis m: Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x = 40 hort

St Augustinegrass: an important warm season turf and pasture grass; Stenotaphrum secundatum (Gramineae) bot agr

star grass - Sterngras n: also known as Bermuda grass or Bahama grass; one of the most widely dispersed grasses in the tropics and subtropics, extending even to Southwest. England; while it can be a serious weed, with fast-growing rhizomes and runners, it can be useful as both a pasture grass and a turf grass; it is usually propagated vegetatively, but some forms can be sown by seed; non-rhizomatous, high-yielding strains are known and are very useful, Cynodon dactylon (Gramineae) bot agr

starwort >>> aster

statice >>> sea lavender

stevia (sweetleaf, sweet leaf, sugarleaf) - Süßkraut n: a perennial plant; BERTONI was the first to describe it botanically in the year of 1899, and for giving it the Latin name in honor of a chemist from Paraguay named REBAUDI; in his description BERTONI states that he was extremely surprised to find the extreme sweetness contained in the smallest of the leaves; the plant can reach heights from 40-80 cm; it is until now, the number one sweetener in the whole of Japan; nowadays it can be found production for liquid stevia, stevia extracts, and stevia plants in many different parts of the world, mainly in South America, Paraguay, Central America, US, China and Israel; as a sugar substitute, stevia's taste has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar, although some of its extracts may have a bitter or liquorice-like aftertaste at high concentrations; with its extracts having up to 300 times the sweetness of sugar, stevia has garnered attention with the rise in demand for low-carbohydrate, low-sugar food alternatives; stevia has a negligible effect on blood glucose, even enhancing glucose tolerance;therefore, it is attractive as a natural sweetener to diabetics and others on carbohydrate-controlled diets; “rebiana” is the trade name for a stevia-derived sweetener being developed jointly by The Coca-Cola Company and Cargill Inc. with the intent of marketing in several countries and gaining regulatory approval in the US and EU, Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) hort agr

stinging nettle - Brennessel f: Urtica ssp. (Urticaceae) bot agr

stitchwort: Stellaria ssp. (Caryophyllaceae) bot agr

stone onion >>> Welsh onion

strand wheat >>> sea lyme grass

strawberry - Erdbeere f: Fragaria ananassa (Rosaceae), 2n = 8x = 56 hort

strawberry clover - Erdbeerklee m: Trifolium fragiferum (Leguminosae) bot agr

strawberry peach >>> Chinese gooseberry

strawberry spinach: the name describes the red, sappy, and edible fruits showing a similar shape as wild strawberry; this old vegetable was subsequently replaced by spinach because of its bigger leaves and easier harvest, Chenopodium capitatum (Chenopodiaceae) hort

straw flower - Strohblume f: Helichrysum bracteatum (Asteraceae) hort

stubble turnip - Stoppelrübe f: Brassica rapa var. rapifera (Brassicaceae), 2n = 2x, AA = 20 agr >>> Figure 8

subterranean clover: Trifolium subterraneum (Leguminosae) hort

subterranean vetch: Vicia sativa ssp. amphicarpa (Leguminosae) bot agr

suckling clover: Trifolium dubium (Leguminosae) bot agr

Sudan grass - Sudangras n: Sorghum sudanese (Gramineae) agr

sugar apple >>> sweetsop

sugarbeet - Zuckerrübe f: it is a crop with major economic importance, providing about 45 % of the world's sugar production; wild relatives of sugarbeet are found in Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa; polyploid breeding has long been a major concern; at present, the majority of commercial hybrids are triploids produced on diploid seed parents pollinated by tetraploids; Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris convar. crassa var. altissima (Chenopodiaceae), 2n = 2x, VV = 18 agr >>> Table 35 >>> Picture 010

sugarcane - Zuckerrohr n: it is a tropical perennial grass, thriving in humid; it is vegetatively propagated by planting a "seed-piece", a piece of cane stalk with at least one bud; it re-sprouts annually from underground buds on basal portions of old stalks; depending on variety and growing conditions, a 2- 4 pound stalk with 15 % sugar will be produced in about 12 months from an original planting or 9 to 11 months from regrowth;  types of sugarcane can be placed into one of three categories according to its physical and chemical characteristics: (a) chewing cane contains fibers that stick together when chewed, making it easier to spit out the pulp once the sugar has been consumed, (b) cane for crystals must contain a high percentages of sucrose, since this is the sugar type that easily forms into crystals when concentrated, (c) syrup canes contain less sucrose and more of other sugars, allowing the juice to be concentrated into syrup and still not form crystals; several old-named varieties are still available; sugarcane cultivars are hybrid products of at least three or four Saccharum ssp.; they are high polyploids and are genetically complex; the cultivated forms base on S. sinense and S. barberi species from India and China; the center of diversity is Indonesia; Saccharum officinarum (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 100-130 agr

sugar maple - Zuckerahorn m: Acer saccharinum (Aceraceae), 2n = 2x = 26 fore hort >>> Picture 013

sugar palm - Zuckerpalme f: Arenga saccharifera (Palmae), 2n = 2x = 32 fore hort

sugar pea: Pisum sativum var. axiphium (Leguminosae) hort

sunflower - Sonneblume f: the genus of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus) includes more than 50 species; it contains one other economically important species, H. tuberosus, plus several ornamentals; wild species played an important role in genetic improvement of sunflower; sunflower was a common crop among American Indian tribes throughout North America; evidence suggests that the plant was cultivated by Indians in present-day Arizona and New Mexico about 3,000 BC; some archaeologists suggest that sunflower may have been domesticated before maize; sunflower was used in many ways throughout the various Indian tribes; seed was ground or pounded into flour for cakes, mush or bread; some tribes mixed the meal with other vegetables such as beans, squash, and maize; the seed was also cracked and eaten for a snack; there are references of squeezing the oil from the seed and using the oil in making bread; non-food uses include purple dye for textiles, body painting and other decorations; parts of the plant were used medicinally ranging from snakebite to other body ointments; the oil of the seed was used on the skin and hair; the dried stalk was used as a building material; the plant and the seeds were widely used in ceremonies; this exotic North American plant was taken to Europe by Spanish explorers some time around 1,500 AC; the plant became widespread throughout present-day Western Europe mainly as an ornamental, but some medicinal uses were developed; by 1716, an English patent was granted for squeezing oil from sunflower seed; sunflower became very popular as a cultivated plant in the 18th century; most of the credit is given to Peter the Great; the plant was initially used as an ornamental, but by 1769 literature mentions sunflower cultivated by oil production; by 1830, the manufacture of sunflower oil was done on a commercial scale; the Russian Orthodox Church increased its popularity by forbidding most oil foods from being consumed during Lent; however, sunflower was not on the prohibited list and therefore gained in immediate popularity as a food; by the early 19th century, Russian farmers were growing over 2 million acres of sunflower; during that time, two specific types had been identified: oil-type for oil production and a large variety for direct human consumption; government research programs were implemented. V. S. PUSTOVOIT developed a very successful breeding program at Krasnodar (Russia); oil contents and yields were increased significantly; today, the world's most prestigious sunflower scientific award is known as The Pustovoit Award; by the late 19th century, Russian sunflower seed found its way into the USA; by 1880, seed companies were advertising the “Mammoth Russian” sunflower seed in catalogues; this particular seed name was still being offered in USA in 1970, nearly 100 years later; a likely source of this seed movement to North America may have been Russian immigrants; the first commercial use of the sunflower crop in USA was silage feed for poultry; in 1926, the Missouri Sunflower Growers' Association participated in what is likely the first processing of sunflower seed into oil; Canada started the first official government sunflower breeding program in 1930; the basic plant breeding material utilized came from Mennonite immigrants from Russia; acreage spread because of oil demand; by 1946, Canadian farmers built a small crushing plant; acreage spread into Minnesota and North Dakota; in 1964, the Government of Canada licensed the Russian cultivar “Peredovik”; this variety produced high yields and high oil content; acreage in USA escalated in the late 1970's to over 5 million because of strong European demand for sunflower oil; this European demand had been stimulated by Russian exports of sunflower oil in the previous decades; during this time, animal fats were negatively impacted by cholesterol concerns; however, the Russians and later Bulgarians could no longer supply the growing demand, and European companies looked; Europeans imported sunflower seed that was then crushed in European mills; Western Europe continues to be a large consumer of sunflower oil today, but depends on its own production and breeding, Helianthus ssp. (Compositae), 2n = 2x = 34, 2C DNA content 6.6-9.9 pg agr hort >>> Tables 31, 35 >>> Jerusalem artichoke

sun hemp: a legume, which is often grown for use as a green manure crop; its plants grow up to a height of 1.5-2.5 m and can add 100-120 kg N/ha in tropical and sub-tropical regions in 40-45 days; it can be grown in poorly drained, low fertility soils; its alternate uses are as a forage and as a source of fibre, Crotalaria juncea (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 16 agr

sun plant >>>> portulac

swamp meadow grass: Poa palustris (Gramineae) bot agr

swamp milkweed: Asclepias incarnata (Asclepiadaceae) bot agr

swede - Kohlrübe f: in the past, it was a vegetable crop common in northern Europe, particularly Germany, Sweden, or Denmark; it was increasingly grown at the beginning of the 20th century as a substitute for potato; at that time potato harvest was low because of strong yield lost by Phytophthora infestans;  nowadays swede is mainly a vegetable with local importance;  there are new breds with yellow flesh and green heads (“Seefelder”) or red-headed (“Marian”), Brassica napus var. napobrassica (Cruciferea)

swede’s rape >>> swede

Swedish turnip >>> Swede

sweet basil >>> basil

sweet cherry: Prunus avium (Rosaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort

sweet chestnut: Castanea sativa (Fagaceae) hort fore

sweet cicily: Myrrhis odorata (Umbelliverae) hort

sweet clover - Süssklee m: it belongs to genus with 19 species native to Eurasia from Central Europe to Tibet; it is used for forage and for soil enrichment through nitrogen fixation; Melilotus albus (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 16 agr

sweet corn >>> maize

sweet flag >>> calamus

sweet orange - Apfelsine f: it is the most important of the citrus fruits, in terms of acreage, and it is now used mainly as a fresh juice at breakfast in order to provide a daily dose of Vitamin C; there are three main types of cultivar; “navel oranges” have a second row of carpels opening at the apex with the appearance of a “belly button” or navel; “blood oranges” have a red, or streaky red pulp; thirdly, there are cultivars with normal fruits; “Valencia” is the most important commercial cultivar, followed by “Washington Navel”, and “Jaffa”, Citrus sinensis syn C. aurantium (Rutaceae) hort >>> hesperidia >>> orange

sweet pea: Lathyrus odoratus (Leguminosae) hort

sweet pepper: species of Capsicum are grown throughout the tropics and are valuable crops under protected cultivation in many temperate countries; peppers with pungent fruits are used as a spice either fresh, dry or as extracted oleoresin; those with non-pungent fruits are used as a vegetable; the genus is native to the Americas, where the fruits have been used by man for over 5,000 years; the tabasco pepper is a large-fruited form of domesticated C. frutescens, while small-fruited forms of C. frutescens are cultivated for oleoresin extraction; most species are self-compatible and are facultative inbreeders; Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort >>> tabasco

sweet potato - Süsskartoffel f: this crop originated in tropical South America; it was taken by Polynesians to Fiji and New Zealand, where it is known by its Peruvian name “kumara”; the Portuguese took it to Africa and the Far East where it is known by its Caribbean name of “batatas”, which is the origin of the English word “potato”; and the Spanish took it from Acapulco to the Philippines where it is known by its Mexican name of “camote”; it is now one of the more important tropical food crops; although it is cultivated as clones, the crop sets true seed freely, and farmers often keep self-sown seedlings as new cultivar; the harvestable product is a tuber which, in the USA, is often incorrectly called a yam; it was domesticated in Central America more than 5000 years ago; the crop was reportedly introduced into China in the late 16th century; because of its hardy nature and broad adaptability, and because its planting material can be rapidly multiplied from very few roots, sweetpotato spread through Asia, Africa, and Latin America during the 17th and 18th centuries; sweet potato has secondary centers of genetic diversity; in Papua New Guinea and in other parts of Asia, many types of sweetpotato can be found that are genetically distinct from those found in their area of origin; today it is widely grown in tropical and temperate regions of the world due to its high yield, high nutritive values and adaptability to a wide range of soils and drought, Ipomoea batatas (Convolvulaceae), 2n = 6x, BBBBBB = 90 hort agr

sweet root >>> calamus

sweet sorghum: Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Gramineae), 2n = 4x = 76 agr

sweetsop: Annona squamosa (Annonaceae), 2n = 2x = 14 hort

sweet williams: Dianthus barbatus (Caryophyllaceae) hort

sweet yellow lupin - Gelbe Lupine f: Lupinus luteus (Leguminosae) agr

Swiss chard - Mangold m: the plant was selected from the wild beet Beta vulagris; there are varieties with white, green and red leaf petiole; it was a common vegetable in the past; leaves were prepared like spinach, stalks like asparagus; in Switzerland most breeding work is carried out, Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae) hort >>> Picture 008

switch grass - Rutenhirse f: an ornamental grass; it easily grown in average, medium wet to wet soils in full sun to part shade; it tolerates wide range of soils, including dry ones, but prefers moist, sandy or clay soils; it tends to flop in rich soils; it grows primarily in clumps, but may naturalize by rhizomes as well as self-seeding to form sizable colonies; it can be grown from seed, Panicum virgatum (Gramineae) bot hort >>> http://www.switchgrassgenomics.org

sword bean - Schwertbohne f: Canavalia gladiata (Leguminosae) hort >>> pulse

ta’amu >>> giant taro

tabasco: Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae) hort >>> sweet pepper

table beet: primary pigments in table beet are the betalains, which are comprised of the red-violet betacyanins and the yellow betaxanthins; the presence of dominant alleles at two linked loci (R and Y) condition the qualitative production of betalain pigment in the beet plant; red-pigmented roots are observed only in the presence of dominant alleles at both the R and Y loci, while white roots are conditioned by recessive alleles at the Y locus, and yellow roots by the genotype rrY-; a gene “blotchy” (bl) conditions a blotchy or irregular pigment patterning in either red or yellow roots; Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae) hort

table watermelon: Citrullus vulgaris var. edulis (Cucurbitaceae); endopolyploidy of 24-384n was observed hort

Tahiti arrowroot: Tacca leontopetaloides (Taccaceae) hort

tall fescue: Festuca arundinacia (Gramineae), 2n = 6x = 42 agr

tall oatgrass: Arrhenatherum elatius (Gramineae) bot agr

tall wheatgrass: Agropyron elongatum (Gramineae) bot agr

tamarind: Tamarindus indica (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 24 fore hort

tancy phacelia: Phacelia tanacetifolia (Hydrophyllaceae) agr

tangerine >>> mandarin

tania: a vegetatively propagated root crop is known variously as taro, dasheen, or coco yam; it was the basis of the agriculture in Papua New Guinea, which is amongst the oldest in the world, dating from about 7,000 BC; it is a labor-intensive crop, and it became only a minor staple, which lacked the potential of a major staple, capable of supporting the growth of cities and the development of a sophisticated civilization, Xanthosoma sagittifolium or X. violaceum syn Colocasia esculenta (Araceae) hort >>> tanier

tanier: Xanthosoma atrovirens (Araceae), 2n = 2x = 26 hort >>> tania

tansy: Tanacetum vulgare (Compositae) hort

tara vine: Actinidia arguta (Actinidiaceae), 2n = 2x = 116 (?)

taro: it is one of the oldest known vegetables and has been grown in some regions of the world for more than 2,000 years, Colocasia esculenta (Araceae), 2n = 2x = 28 hort >>> coc(o)yam

tarragon: Artemisia dracunculus (Compositae) hort

Tatary buckwheat: Fagopyrum tataricum (Polygonaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 agr >>> Tatary buckwheat

tau-sahyz >>> Russian dandelion

tea - Tee(strauch) m/m: Camellia sinensis (Camelliaceae), 2n = 2x = 30 hort

tears of Job >>> adlay

tea tree: Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) hort

tef(f): Eragrostis tef (Gramineae), 2n = 4x = 40 agr

teonochtil >>> pencas

teosinte: Euchlaena mexicana (Gramineae) bot agr

teosinte, perennial: Zea diploperennis (Gramineae) bot agr

tepary bean: it is of very ancient domestication in Mexico and was later replaced to a large extent by Phaseolus vulgaris, Phaseolus acutifolius var. latifolius (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 22hort >>> pulse

Texas bluegrass: Poa arachnifera (Gramineae); it is a vigorous sod-forming perennial, dioecious grass, tolerant to heat; it is native to the Southern Great Plains of USA bot agr

thale cress: a species of flowering of the family Brassicaceae; this plant became a main subject of molecular genome analysis because it has a small and simple genome; it contains almost no repetitive DNA; its genome was completely sequenced by the end of 2000; it is a plant model system of choice because of the additional advantages of short generation time (about five weeks), high seed production (up to 40,000 seeds per plant) and natural self-pollination, Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), 2n = 2x = 10; 2C DNA content 0.15 pg = 120 Mb, bot gene >>> Picture 014

Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 14 (JJ) bot

Thinopyrum elongatum (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 14 (EE) bot

Thinopyrum junceiforme (Gramineae), 2n = 4x = 28 (J1J1J2J2) bot agr

thistle - Distel f: Cirsium ssp. (Asteraceae) bot agr

thyme - Thymian m: Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae) hort

tien chi >>> san chi

timothy: Phleum pratense (Gramineae), 2n = 6x = 42 agr

tobacco - Tabak m: it is a tall, herbaceous plant; the leaves of which are harvested, cured, and rolled into cigars, shredded for use in cigarettes and pipes, and processed for chewing or snuff; the main source of commercial tobacco is Nicotiana tabacum, although Nicotiana rustica is also grown and is used in oriental tobaccos; breeders have developed a wide range of morphologically different types, from the small-leafed aromatic tobaccos to the large, broad-leaved cigar tobaccos; it is the most widely grown non-food crop in the world; it was not only of agronomic interest but also by its utilization in genetic, physiologic, biochemical, and biotechnological research; Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana rustica (Solanaceae), 2n = 4x = 48; 2C DNA content 6.6 pg = 1650 Mb agr

tomato - Tomate f: as potato tomato originates from South America and became early a crop plant in Mexico; because of strong smell of leaves and stem it was believed as poisonous plant; therefore the Latin name Lycopersicon (wolf’s peach); in the 16th century it was used already as a vegetable in Italy (French: pomi d’oro = golden apple); during the 19th century the varieties "King Humbert", or "Purpurviolet Ponderosa" became very attractive; at the beginning of the 20th century the variety "Lukullus" became famous; as garden pea it became a subject of intensively genetic research and is still one of the best investigated crop plant, there are more than 10.000 varieties described; alien gene transfer and genetic engineering were successfully demonstrated on tomato; Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort agr >>> potato

toria >>> Indian rape

t’ou >>> rakkyo

touch-me-not: Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae) hort

tree of heaven: Ailanthus glandulosa (Simaroubaceae) bot hort

tree onion: Allium cepa var. viviparum (Alliaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort

tree sorrel >>> bilimbi

tree tomato - Strauchtomate f: Cyphomandra betacea (Solanaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort

trembling aspen - Zitterpappel f: Populus tremuloides ((Salicaceae) fore

triticale - Triticale m: a amphiploid hybrid between wheat (Triticum) and rye species (Secale) in which wheat is the donor of the cytoplasm; it is a cereal crop created by man from wheat and rye based on a work starting at the end of the 19th century (WILSON 1876, UK; RIMPAU 1888, 1891, Germany); the aim was to combine the quality advantages of wheat with the stress insensitivity of rye; growth habit is similar to wheat; it differs from wheat by a greater vigor and larger size of spikes and grains; among three basic ploidy levels so far developed for triticale, the hexaploid type became the most important for breeding and agriculture; there is a taxonomic proposal for classification: genus Triticum, section Triticale, notospecies Triticale krolowii (2n = 4x = 28), Triticale turgidocereale (2n = 6x = 42) and Triticale rimpaui (2n = 8x = 56) (Gramineae) agr >>> Tables 1, 15, 16, 48 >>> Picture 009

tritipyrum: an amphiploid hybrid between wheat (Triticum) and Thinopyrum species (Thinopyrum) in which wheat is the donor of the cytoplasm, (Gramineae) agr

tritordeum: an amphiploid hybrid between wheat (Triticum) and barley species (Hordeum) in which wheat is the donor of the cytoplasm (Gramineae) agr

true turnip >>> stubble turnip

truffle - Trüffel f: an edible fruit-body of Tuber or other Tuberales, growing usually subterranean bot hort

tuba root >>> derris

Turkish cobnut: Corylus colurna (Corylaceae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort >>> hazel

Turkish rocket - Türkische Rauke f: leaves and young stems are eaten raw or cooked; young leaves have a mild cabbage flavor that goes very well in a mixed salad, though some people find them indigestible; the leaves are a bit hairy; cooked leaves make an excellent vegetable; they are available early in the year, usually towards the end of winter; flower buds and flowering stems give a pleasant mild flavour with a delicate sweetness and cabbage-like flavour, they make an excellent broccoli substitute though they are rather smaller, Bunias orientalis (Cruciferae) hort

turkterebinth nut >>> pistachio (nut)

tulip - Tulpe f: Tulipa ssp. (Liliaceae), 2n = 2x, 3x, 4x = 24, 36, 48 hort

tunas >>> pencas

tung (oil tree): Aleurites fordii, A. montana (Euphorpiaceae), 2n = 2x = 22 fore

turmeric: Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) hort

turnip: Brassica campestris (Brassicaceae), 2n = 2x, AA = 20 hort

turnip cabbage >>> kohlrabi

turnip rape: Brassica campestris ssp. oleifera (Brassicaceae), 2n = 2x, AA = 20 agr

turnip-rooted chervil: it was a vegetable of middle and eastern Europe; there is also a Sibirian  species (C. prescottii), which can be spring-sown; in Germany, it was in the 18th and 19th century a preferred vegetable spice, Chaerophyllum bulbosum (Umbelliferae) hort >>> Picture 2

ulluco: Ullucus tuberosus (Basellaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort

underground onion >>> multiplier (onion)

urd bean: it is a highly prized pulse in India; the flowers are self-pollinating and cross-pollination is very rare;the maximum diversity for V. mungo exists in upper Western Ghats and the Deccan Hills and a second center in Bihar, i.e., the center of origin of two crops V. mungo and V. radiata lies in India; Phaseolus mungo syn Vigna mungo (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort >>> pulse >>> mungbean

valerian - Baldrian m: Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) hort

vanilla - Vanille f: Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae), 2n = 2x = 32 hort

varnish tree: Rhus venicifera syn R. verniciflua (Anacardiaceae), 2n = 2x = 30 fore

vegetable marrow: Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x = 40 hort

vegetable oyster >>> salsify

velvetbean: a self-pollinated species and an important legume used in tropical agricultural systems in rotation with other crops for nematode management and/or soil improvement, Mucuna ssp. (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 22 agr

vernonia: about 1,000 species are found in the large genus Vernonia; the species V. galamensis is limited in distribution primarily to eastern Africa; seeds from this plant contain an oil rich in epoxy fatty acids; epoxy oils are widely used in plasticizers and additives in flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins; this market is supplied by the epoxidation of either soybean or linseed oil; the composition of vernonia oil has superior qualities compared to these other oils; a potential market use might be as a drying agent in reformulated oil-based or alkyd-resin paints; some 1.2 billion liter of paint are manufactured annually in the USA; the drying agents currently used are major pollutants; the annual plant is grown on small farms in Africa where seeds are bought and crushed for oil locally; private industries have also produced this species in other countries located close to the equator; this is because the plants with the largest seed and best seed retention only flower under short-day conditions; hybrids were developed between short-day flowering types and an accession flowering under any day length; resulting day-neutral hybrids can be planted in February or March and harvested in September or October, i.e. under long-day conditions of North America; they have been grown successfully in Arizona, Kentucky, Missouri, Oregon, Texas, Virginia, and northern Argentina; Commercial development of these hybrids depends on further improvement of seed yields, Vernonia galamensis (Compositae)

vetch - Wicke f: Vicia ssp., Lathyrus ssp. (Leguminosae) agr bot >>> wooly-pod vetch >>> common vetch >>> hairy vetch >>> hairy vetchling >>> Hungarian vetch >>> kidney vetch >>> narbon vetch >>> purple vetch >>> subterranean vetch

Vietnamese balm (rau mong toi) - Vietnamesische Melisse f: flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by insects; the plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils; young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked; finely cut added to salads or used as a potherb; the leaves also can be used as an aromatic condiment for vegetable dishes; powdered seeds are used as a condiment for flavouring foodstuffs; it contains an essential oil and is antibacterial, antipyretic, antiviral, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic and stomachic; it is used in the treatment of common colds, fevers, headaches, diarrhoea, oedema and oliguria; plants have a broad-spectrum antibacterial action; it is a seed propagated, Elsholtzia ciliata (Labiatae) hort

viper's grass >>> black salsify

wavy hairgrass: Deschampsia flexuosa (Gramineae) agr bot

wallflower: Cheiranthus cheiri (Brassicaceae) hort

walnut - Walnuss f: the walnut is a tall, deciduous tree prized for its dark timber; the wrinkled nut is contained in a hard shell which is in turn surrounded by a fleshy green layer; cultivars are propagated vegetatively as clone and it is advisable to grow a mixture of clones to improve pollination, Juglans regia (Juglandaceae), 2n = 2x = 32 hort >>> African walnut

watercress - Wasserkresse f: a water plant common in Europe; the leaves have a mustard-like taste and showing high content of vitamin C; in the past, it was used as vegetable substitute; nowadays, it is offered as an all-season vegetable, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (Brassicaceae), 2n = 2x, R’R’ = 32 hort

watermelon - Wassermelone f: Citrullus lanatus, C. vulgaris (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x = 22; endopolyploidy of 24-384n was observed hort

wattle: Acacia senegal (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 26 hort

wax gourd: syn white gourd, Benincasa hispida (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort

wax tree: Rhus succedanea (Anacardiaceae), 2n = 2x = 30 fore

Welsh onion: a type of onion common in gardens since long; the wild type is native of Siberia and eastern Asia; because of small bulbs only leaves are used as vegetable, Allium fistulosum (Alliaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort >>> Picture 008

Western Australian sandalwood: a widespread tree in the semi-arid and arid regions of Western Australia; it yields one of the of woods traded as sandalwood, which commands high prices;it grows to 5-6 m; its foliage is grey in color; the fruit is spherical, about 3 cm in diameter; it has a spherical kernel; seeds are very difficult to germinate, requiring warm, moist conditions not normally found in their natural habitat; in most years they would not naturally germinate; possibly they depend on the el nino cycle; success has been reported by placing the kernels in moist vermiculite in sealed plastic bags at room temperature; once germinated, it should be planted next to another seedling, and watered adequately; two ecotypes can be identified; S. spicatum shows moderate levels of genetic diversity compared to other Australian tree species; the northern populations in the arid region show greater levels of diversity and less population differentiation than the southern populations in the semi-arid region due to differences in the distribution of rare alleles, Santalum spicatum (Santalaceae) fore

wheat - Weizen m: it refers to a family of related small grains that are descended from the natural crossing of three Middle East grasses (Aegilops ssp.) centuries ago; it is the most grown cereal crop in the world; it comprises 14 species; the inflorescence is a spike, containing about 20-30 spikelets; each with about 4-6 florets; one seed is set per floret, although the smaller florets may not bear seeds; it is normally self-pollinating; four main commercial market classes are described: (a) hard red spring, (b) hard red winter, (c) soft red winter, (d) white wheat; wheat is the leading human food resource; a world production >550 Mio tons; the cultivation of wheat has developed for more than 10,000 years; the areas dedicated to wheat throughout the world exceed the area for all other crops like rice, maize, and potato; the various wheats include a group of diploid species characterized by 8 genomes and group of tetraploid and hexaploid with 9 genomes; 2 main species are produced: (a) soft wheat (hexaploid), Triticum aestivum (2n = 6x, AABBDD = 42, 2C DNA content 36 pg = 16000 Mb), and (b) hard wheat (tetraploid), Triticum durum, Triticum spp. (Gramineae) agr >>> Figure 10 >>> Tables 1, 15, 16, 30, 32, 35, 48

wheat-grass >>> Agropyron

white (head) cabbage - Weisskohl m: Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. alba (Brassicaceae) hort >>> Figure 8

white campion - Weisse Lichtnelke f: one of the few members of the plant kingdom carrying sex chromosomes, Silene alba (Caryophyllaceae) bot biot

white clover - Weissklee m: the tetraploid clover could have been derived from hybridization between T. nigrescens and T. uniflorum, Trifolium repens (Leguminosae), 2n = 4x = 32 agr

white lupin - Weisse Lupine f: Lupinus albus (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 48 agr

white mustard - Weisser Senf m: this is a “hot” mustard, as opposed to the three species Brassica juncea, B. nigra, and B. carinata, which are “pungent” mustards; it is a completely cross-pollinating crop requiring recurrent mass selection for breeding; it is cultivated as an oil crop in Scandinavia; Sinapis albasyn Brasicca alba (Brassicaceae) agr

white pine: Pinus strobus (Pinaceae) fore

white sweet clover - Weisklee m: Melilotus alba (Leguminosae) agr

white spruce: Picea glauca (Pinaceae) fore

white yam: also known as the Guinea yam, and the eight-months yam; it originated in West Africa and is the most important species agriculturally, Dioscorea rotundata (Dioscoreaceae) hort

whortleberry >>> blueberry

wild chamomile >>> German chamomile

wild crucifer: a potential source for alien gene transfer; of special interest is its C3-C4 intermediate photosynthetic and/or photorespiratory mechanism, Moricandia arvensis, M. nitens (Brassicaceae) bot biot

wild emmer wheat: Triticum dicoccoides (Gramineae) agr >>> emmer wheat

wild oat - Wildhafer m: Avena fatua (Gramineae) bot agr

wild mustard >>> charlock

wild radish >>> runch

wild rice - Wildreis m: a native aquatic grain of northern North America; it is not related to true rice,Zizania palustris(Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 30 bot >>> rice

wild rye >>> lyme grass

willow - Weide f: Salix ssp. (Salicaceae); Salix exigua and S. viminalis are used for biomass production in sustainable agriculture agr fore bot >>> basket willow

willow-leaved foxglove: Digitalis obscura (Scrophulariaceae) hort

winged bean - Flügelbohne f: also known as asparagus pea, four-angled bean, Manila bean, and princess pea, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 18, 26 hort >>> pulse

winter grape >>> Berlandieri grape

winter (oilseed) rape >>> rapeseed

wood sorrel: despite the white and pink flowers (also used as ornamental plant), wood sorrel develops a whitish and fleshy root that can be eaten as vegetable; in the past it was cultivated in Europe, Oxalis deppei syn O. esculenta syn O. tetraphylla (Oxalidaceae)

wooly-pod vetch: Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae) bot agr >>> vetch

wormwood: Artemisia absinthium (Compositae) hort

wrinkled pea: Pisum sativum convar. medullare (Leguminosae) hort

yam bean: Sphenostylis stenocarpa syn Pachyrrhizus tuberosus (Leguminosae) hort >>> pulse

yam(s)(Asia): this is the Asian yam, also known as the white yam, the greater yam, the winged yam, and the water yam are climbing plants cultivated in tropical regions; the starchy tubers (underground stems) are eaten as a vegetable; this yam was of major importance to the seafaring Polynesians who took it to most of the tropical islands of the Old World; it is propagated vegetatively, because most cultivars never produce fertile seed, and some are completely sterile; the Mexican yam (Dioscorea composita) contains a chemical that is used in the contraceptive pill, Dioscorea alata and D. esculenta (Dioscoreaceae), 2n = 3x-10x = 30-100 hort agr >>> aerial yam >>> yellow yam >>> African yam >>> white yam >>> cush-cush yam

yams (Africa): Dioscorea rotundata (Dioscoreaceae), 2n = 4x = 40 hort agr

yam(s) bean >>> jicama

yarrow: Achillea ssp. (Asteraceae) hort >>> Picture 013

yautia >>> tanier

year bean: Phaseolus polyanthus (Leguminosae) agr >>> pulse

yellow gram >>> chickpea

yellow lucerne: Medicago falcata (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x, 4x = 16, 32 agr

yellow lupin - Gelbe Lupine f >>> sweet yellow lupin

yellow-seeded sarson: Brassica campestris ssp. tricularis (Brassicaceae), 2n = 2x, AA = 20 hort >>> Figure 8

yellow sigatoka >>> black sigatoka

yellow sweet clover: Melilotus officinalis (Leguminosae) agr

yellow sucking: Trifolium dubium (Leguminosae) agr

yellow trefoil >>> black medick

yellow yam: also known as the twelve-month yam, and the yellow guinea yam; in spite of its name, this is a West African species that still occurs wild; it was taken to the New World with the slave trade, Dioscorea cayenensis (Dioscoreaceae) hort

yew: Taxus baccata (Taxaceae) hort fore

yielding maguey >>> cantala

ylang-ylang syn ilang-ilang syn annona asiatic a small protogynous flower of the cananga tree having six yellow-green petals; a strong allogamous and fast-growing tree that exceeds 5 m per year and attains an average height of 12 m; it grows in full or partial sun, and prefers the acidic soils of its native rainforest habitat; the flower is greenish yellow (rarely pink), curly like a sea star, and yields a highly fragrant essential oil (canaga oil); the fragrance is rich and deep with notes of rubber and custard, and bright with hints of jasmine and neroli; the main aromatic components are benzyl acetate, linalool and p-cresyl methyl ether and methyl benzoate; a related species is C. fruticosa, which is a dwarf ylang-ylang that grows as small tree or compact shrub with highly scented flowers; ylang-ylang has been cultivated in temperate climates, e.g. Madagascar, Indonesia, or Philippines, under conservatory conditions, Cananga odorata (Annonaceae), 2n=2x=16 hort fore

zoysiagrass: the genus Zoysia consists of 16 species that are naturally distributed on sea coasts and grasslands around the Pacific; of these, Zoysia japonica, Z. matrella, and Z. tenuifolia are grown extensively as turfgrasses, and Z. japonica (syn Osterdamia japonica syn Zoysia pungens syn Z. pungens japonica) is also used as forage grass in Japan and other countries in East Asia; it is in leaf all year, in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from June to August; the flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by wind; the plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil; it also prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils; it cannot grow in the shade, 2n = 4x = 40, allotetraploid (Gramineae) agr

zucchini: Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiia (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x = 40 hort >>> Picture 011

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