Crops II
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... more 10.000 glossed keywords and links to more than 100 figures and schemes, about 100 tables etc. can be obtained in addition to this limited INTERNET version either on CD-ROM or in modified design as book by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA

hairy vetch: Vicia villosa (Leguminosae) bot agr

hairy vetchling: Lathyrus hirsutus (Leguminosae) bot agr

harlequin flower - Gauklerblume f: Sparaxis tricolor (Iridaceae) hort

haricot >>> French bean

hawkbit >>> dandelion

hazel (nut) - Haselnuss f: Corylus ssp. (Corylaceae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort >>> Siberian hazel >>> American hazel >>> Turkish cobnut >>> cobnut >>> filbert

head cabbage - Kopfkohl m: Brassica oleracea convar. capitata (Brassicaceae) hort >>> Figure 8

head lettuce - Kopfsalat m: Lactuca sativa var. capitata (Compositae) hort

hedge hyssop: Gratiola officinalis (Scrophulariaceae) bot agr

hemp - Hanf m: cultivation and use of hemp for fiber can be traced back to 2,800 B.C. in China; for many centuries hemp has been cultivated as a source of strong stem fibers, seed oil, and psychoactive drugs in its leaves and flowers; environmental concerns and recent shortages of wood fiber have renewed interest in hemp as a raw material for a wide range of industrial products; hemp is an herbaceous annual that develops a rigid woody stem ranging in height from 1 - 5 m; the stalks have a woody core surrounded by a bark layer containing long fibers that extend nearly the entire length of the stem; breeding has developed hemp varieties with increased stem fiber content and very low levels of delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient of marijuana; although hemp is well adapted to the temperate climatic zone and will grow under varied environmental conditions, it grows best with warm growing conditions, an extended frost-free season, highly productive agricultural soils, and abundant moisture throughout the growing season; hemp yields range from 2.5 to 8.7 t of dry stems per acre; hemp is dioecious plant having both staminate (male) and pistillate (female) plants, each with distinctive growth characteristics; staminate plants are tall and slender with few leaves surrounding the flowers, while pistillate plants are short and stocky with many leaves at each terminal inflorescence; staminate plants senesce and die soon after their pollen is shed, while pistillate plants remain alive until the seeds mature; quite stable monoecious varieties have been developed, Cannabis sativa (Moraceae); 2n = 2x = 20, XY male, XX female agr

henbane: Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae) bot agr

Henequen agave: on the Canary Islands used as a fiber plant, Agave fourcroydes (Agavaceae), 2n = 5x = 40 (?) agr

hevea (rubber) >>> rubber

hickory: Hicoria ssp. (Juglandaceae) fore hort

highbush blueberry: Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae ), 2n = 4x = 48 hort

hippie - Amaryllis f: many tropical lilylike plants also belong to the family, such as those of the genera Haemanthus (Cape tulip, or blood lily), Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily), and Hippeastrum; the hippeastrums, grown for their large, showy flowers, are commonly known as amaryllis; an ornamental Eurasian plant known as winter daffodil (Sternbergia lutea) belongs to the same family; hippies are perennial herbs from a bulb with contractile roots, comprising 50 genera and 870 species;  the leaves are alternate and more or less basal, simple, usually linear or lorate, flat, entire, parallel-veined, sheathing at base; stipules absent; the flowers are bisexual, often showy, actinomorphic to zygomorphic, usually in umbelloid cymes; the perianth consists of 6 distinct or connate petaloid tepals, sometimes with an adnate corona; the androecium consists of 6 stamens attached to the receptacle or adnate to the perianth tube; filaments free or connate, sometimes appendaged and forming a staminal corona; the gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of 3 carpels, a single style, one capitate or 3-lobed stigma, and an inferior ovary with 3 locules, each containing several to numerous axile ovules; the fruit is a loculicidal capsule or sometimes a berry; the seed coat usually has a black or blue crust; many hybrid varieties are grown as ornamental plants, Hippeastrum hybridum (Amaryllidaceae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort >>> Pictures 012, 014

Hippeastrum >>> hippie

holcos: Holcos lanatus (Gramineae) bot agr

hollyhock: Alcea rosea ssp. plena (Malvaceae) hort >>> Picture 014

hop clover: Trifolium campestre (Leguminosae) agr

hops - Hopfen m: hops is a long-day plant and it is dioecious; it is cropped in central Europe since more than 1,000 years; despite the early origin of cultivation, hops never developed into a major crop because they are only used by the brewery industry to flavor fermented malt beverages, primarily beer, and ale; it is a dioecious species; male plants are only used for breeding or yield stimulation; vegetatively propagated female plants are grown for commercial production in about 30 countries worldwide; in diploids, a 1 : 1 sex ratio of seedling progenies is expected for an XX (female) and XY (male) sex mechanism, however male are less frequent; it is propagated vegetatively, and only about eight clones dominated world production until quite recently; these include “Fuggle” and “Golding” in UK, “Hallertau” in Germany, and “Saaz” in Czech Repbulic; the clones are mostly >>> ancient, and they demonstrate the utility and durability of horizontal resistance; a breeding program started in Germany in 1922 accumulated polygenic resistance to downy mildew by breeding within the European population; this was one of the earliest examples of horizontal resistance being chosen over vertical resistance in crop improvement, Humulus lupulus (Moraceae), 2n = 2x = 20, XY male agr hort

horseradish - Meerrettich m: pungent relish obtained from the large taproot; a delicious condiment with meat and seafood, this species does not flower or set seed; there are many clones with widely varying degrees of pungency; these ancient clones have few pests or diseases and they are a good example of both the effectiveness and the durability of horizontal resistance, Armoracia rusticana (Brassicaceae), 2n = 4x = 32; 2C DNA content 2.5 pg hort >>> ancient clone

hot paprika >>> hot pepper

hot pepper - Paprika m: Capsicum annum var. accuminatum (Solanaceae) hort

huauzontle: Chenopodium nuttalliae (Chenopodiaceae), 2n = 4x = 36 hort

huckleberry >>> blueberry

Hungarian vetch: Vicia pannonica (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 12 agr

hungry rice: Digitaria exilis (Gramineae) bot agr

hyacinth - Hyazinthe f: Hyacinthus orientalis (Liliaceae) hort

hyacinth bean >>> lablab

hyssop: Hyssopus officinalis (Labiatae) hort >>> Picture 010

ice plant: it is native in southern Africa and related to M. criniflorum; meanwhile, it is grown in several European countries; it is used for salads giving a salty taste, Mesembrianthemum crystallinum (Aizoaceae) hort >>> Picture 007

Indian dwarf wheat: Triticum sphaerococum (Gramineae) >>> wheat

Indian hemp: it is a special type of C. sativa, which is cultivated in India as a source of narcotics, Cannabis indica (Moraceae) agr

Indian lettuce: Lactuca indica (Compositae), 2n = 2x = 18 hort

Indian mustard >>> brown mustard

Indian rape: Brassica campestris ssp. dichotoma (Brassicaceae), 2n = 2x, AA = 20 hort

indigo - Indigo m: violet-blue vegetable dye obtained from various tropical plants such as the anil, but now replaced by a synthetic product; it was once a major export crop of India; this dye has been used for at least 4,000 years, and it is superior to the European woad (Isatis tinctora); however, with the development of analine dyes, the world market for natural dyes collapsed, Indigofera ssp. (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort agr

indigo woad: this plant provides a natural blue dye called woad, which is inferior to >>> indigo, Isatis tinctoria (Brassicaceae) hort agr >>> Picture 012

Indonesian oil palm - Indonesische Ölpalme f >>> oil palm

intermediate wheatgrass: Agropyron intermedium (Gramineae) bot agr

iris - Iris f: Iris ssp. (Iridaceae), Iris sibirica, 2n = 2x = 28 hort

isanu: Tropaeolum tuberosum (Tropacolaceae) hort

Isfahan wheat: Triticum turgidum (Gramineae), 2n = 4x, AABB = 28, 2C DNA content 25 pg agr

Italian ryegrass: Lolium multiflorum (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 14 agr >>> Picture 013

ivory (palm) nut - Steinnuß~/ Elfenbeinpalme f: a genus of five species of palms, native to tropical South America; the genus name means “plant elephant”, which refers to the very hard, white seed endospem, which resembles elephant ivory; plants are medium-sized to tall reaching up to 20 m tall, with pinnate leaves, Phytelephas macrospora syn Elephantusia ssp. (Palmae) hort bot

jack bean: Canavalia ensiformis (Leguminosae) hort >>> pulse

jackfruit: Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), 2n = 2x = 56 hort

Japanese apricot: it exhibits a S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility system as other self-incompatible Prunus species; a S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene, a candidate gene for pollen-S, leads to the development of a molecular typing system for S-haplotype in this fruit species, Prunus mume (Rosaceae) hort biot

Japanese aucuba >>> aucuba

Japanese laurel >>> aucuba

Japanese barnyard millet: it is the fastest growing of any cereal, and can produce a harvest in little more than forty days; it is grown as a minor cereal in the Orient and India, and as a fodder crop in North America where it can produce up to eight crops a year, Echinochloa frumentacea (Gramineae) bot agr

Japanese black pine: Pinus thunbergii (Pinaceae) fore

Japanese bunching onion >>> Welsh onion

Japanese cherry - Japanische Kirsche f: Prunus serrulata rosea (Rosaceae) hort

Japanese chestnut - Japanische Kastanie f: Castanea crenata (Fagaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort

Japanese lowngrass >>> zoysiagrass

Japanese mint - Japanische Minze f: Mentha arvensis (Labiatae), 2n = 8x, RaRaSSJJAA = 96 hort

Japanese pear: Pyrus pyrifolia (Rosaceae) hort

Japanese persimmon >>> persimmon

Japanese plum: Prunus salicina (Rosaceae), 2n = 2x, 4x = 16, 32 hort

Japanese privet: Ligistrum japonicum (Oleaceae), 2n = 2x = 44 hort

Japanese radish: Raphanus sativus ssp. niger (Brassicaceae) hort

Japanese red pine: Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 fore

Japanese rice: varieties of this type are strictly used for the brewing of sake (Japanese rice wine); they represent a unique and traditional group of rices; they are characterized by common traits, such as large grain size with low protein content and a large, central white-core structure; analysis of both nuclear and chloroplast genome polymorphisms showed that the genetic diversity in sake-brewing rice cultivars is much smaller than the diversity found in cooking rice cultivars; the genetic diversity within the modern sake-brewing cultivars is about twofold higher than the diversity within the local sake-brewing cultivars, which is in contrast to the cooking cultivars; it is due to introgression of the modern cooking cultivars into the modern sake-brewing cultivars through breeding practices; cluster analysis and chloroplast haplotype analysis suggested that the local sake-brewing cultivars originated monophyletically in the western regions of Japan, Oryza sativa (Gramineae) agr >>> rice

Japanese snake gourd - Japanischer Schlangenkürbis m: Trichosanthes cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x, 4x = 22, 44 hort

Japan laurel >>> aucuba

Java cantala >>> cantala

Java cardamom >>> cardamom

Jerusalem artichoke: a close relative of the sunflower, it is open-pollinated and amenable to recurrent mass selection for horizontal resistance, Helianthus tuberosus (Compositae), 2n = 6x = 102 hort >>> sunflower >>> artichoke

jicama: Pachyrrhizus erosus (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort >>> pulse

Job's tears >>> adlay

jointed charlock >>> runch

jojoba (from the Mexican name: ho-ho-bah) – Jojoba f: the plant is a woody perennial and dioecious bush native to the Sonora Desert of Arizona, northern Mexico, and arid California; jojoba plants are either male or female; since only the female plants will produce beans and the males are only used for pollination, >>> overplanting is necessary so there are enough females; it takes plants at least three years to flower; until that time, one cannot figure out the sex; after flowering the extra males can be removed from plantages and at least another two years are required before the females will produce beans; the female flower becomes a hardened capsule, which contains one or more developing seeds; as the seeds grow within the capsule during the spring and summer months, the capsule wall becomes thinner until dried; the capsule ultimately splits and the matured seed drops to the ground; the color and shape of jojoba seeds are reminiscent of coffee bean; jojoba is the only plant that produces significant quantities of liquid wax esters akin to the natural restorative esters produced by human sebaceous glands; currently all jojoba beans are from wild plants; it is grown commercially in Argentina, Israel, and Australia, in addition to the US and Mexico; the plants produces beans which contain up to 50–54% their weight in oil; the oil found in the bean is similar to that found in the sperm whale; recently it was demonstrated in Arabia, where it is also grown in salty deserts, that the oil is extremely useful for diesel engines as well; Simmondsia chinensis (Simmondsiaceae), 2n = 4x = 52 (the sex cannot be identified until flowering stage [2–5 years age]; sex chromosomes are not distinguishable; therefore, sex type of jojoba seedlings cannot be determined by cytological methods; the plantation with seeds usually results in 84% male and 16% female plants whereas only 10% male plants are desirable for optimal yield; two male-specific markers of ~25 bp and ~325 bp were identified using primer combinations EcoRI-GC/MseI-GCG and EcoRI-TAC/MseI-GCG, respectively; a female-specific marker of ~270 bp was identified with the primer combination EcoRI-TAC/MseI-GCG) hort >>> agroenergy crop >>> Picture 006

josta (syn jostaberry) – Jochelbeere f: an crossing hybrid of black currant x gooseberry, Ribes nigrum x uva-crispa (Grossulariaceae), 2n=2x=16 hort >>> Picture 009

jostaberry >>> josta

jute - Jute f: Corchorus spp. (Tiliaceae), 2n = 2x = 14 agr

kaki - Kaki(frucht) f/f >>> persimmon

kabuli chickpea >>> chickpea

kale - Grünkohl m: Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica (Brassicaceae) agr hort >>> Figure 8

kamut wheat: “kamut” derives from the ancient Egyptian word for wheat; it is marketed as a new cereal, however it is an ancient relative of modern durum wheat (Triticum durum); it is thought to have evolved contemporary with the free-threshing tetraploid wheats; it is also claimed that it is related to Triticum turgidum, which also includes the closely related durum wheat; the correct subspecies is in dispute; it was originally identified as Triticum polonicum; some other taxonomists believe it is Triticum turanicum, commonly called Khorasan wheat; although its true history and taxonomy is not clear yet, its great taste, texture, and nutritional qualities as well as its hypo-allergenic properties are unequivocal; it shows two to three times the size of common wheat with 20–40% more protein, higher in lipids, amino acids, vitamins and minerals, and a "sweet" alternative for all products that now use common wheat >>> wheat >>> Khorasan wheat

kapok: Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaeae) hort

Katjang bean: Phaseolus uniculata ssp. cylindrica (Leguminosae) hort

keladi >>> taro

kenaf: syn bimli jute or Deccan hemp; it is a 4,000 year old crop with roots in ancient Africa; as a member of the hibiscus family, it is related to cotton and okra; it grows quickly, rising to heights of 12-14 feet in as little as 4-5 months; it may yield of 6-10 t of dry fiber per acre; while the flowering can last 3-4 weeks, each individual flower blooms for only one day; after blooming the flower drops off, leaving a seed pod behind; the stalk consists of two distinct fiber types; the outer fiber is called "bast" and comprises about 40 percent of the stalk's dry weight; the refined bast fibers measure 2.6 mm and are similar to the best softwood fibers used to make paper; the whiter, inner fiber is called "core", and comprises 60 percent of the dry weight; these refined fibers measure 0.6 mm and are comparable to hardwood tree fibers, which are used in a wide range of paper products; upon harvest, the whole plant is processed in a mechanical fiber separator, similar to a cotton gin; the separation of the two fibers allows independent processing and provides raw materials for a growing number of products, Hibiscus cannabinussyn H. cannabis (Malvaceae), 2n = 2x = 36 agr 

Kentucky blue grass: Poa pratensis (Gramineae) agr

Kersting’s groundnut: Macrotyloma geocarpum (Leguminosae) hort >>> pulse >>> gynophore

Khorasan wheat: Triticum turanicum, T. orientale (Gramineae) agr >>> wheat >>> kamut wheat

kidney bean: a plant of the humid tropical uplands which originated in Central America; the young green pods are eaten sliced and boiled, and the dried seeds can also be cooked and eaten, Phaseolus coccineus, P. multiflorus (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort >>> Table 16 >>> pulse

kidney vetch: Anthyllis vulneraria (Leguminosae) bot agr

Kikuyu grass: a fodder grass from Kenya that is now widespread throughout the tropics, Pennisetum clandestinum (Gramineae), 2n = 4x = 36 agr

kiwi - Kiwi f: Actinidia chinensis (Actinidiaceae) hort

kodo millet: Paspalum scrobiculatum (Gramineae) agr

kohlrabi - Kohlrabi m: Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes (Brassicaceae) hort >>> Figure 8 >>> Picture 005

kola (nut) - Kolanuss f: Cola nitida (Sterculiaceae), 2n = 4x = 40 hort

kolomikta: Actinidia kolomicta (Actinidiaceae), 2n = 2x = 112 (?)

koroniviagrass: Brachiaria humidicola (Poaceae), 2n = 4x = 36 agr  >>> palisadegrass

koracan >>> coracan >>> finger millet

Korean lawngrass >>> zoysiagrass

Korean temple grass >>> zoysiagrass

kosena radish: Raphanus sativus cv. Kosena (Brassicaceae) hort

kudzu: Pueraria thunbergiana (Leguminosae) hort

kuikui pake >>> Barbados nut

kui ts’ai >>> Chinese chive

kummerovia >>> lespedeza

Kura clover: Trifolium ambiguum (Leguminosae) agr

kurrat: Allium kurrat (Alliaceae), 2n = 4x = 32 hort

lablab: Dolichos lablab syn Lablab purpureus (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort >>> pulse

lady´s fingers >>> okra

lambsquarter (Lamb's Quarters): Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) bot agr

lamb´s lettuce >>> corn salad

larch - Lärche f: Larix ssp. (Pinaceae) fore

large-seeded false flax (syn gold-of-pleasure) - Leindotter m: a wild crucifer that is reported to be resistant to Alternaria blight; it additionally possesses valuable agronomic attributes that make it attractive as an alternative spring-sown crop for tight crop rotations; it is particularly rich in polyunsaturated C18-fatty acids, making it a valuable renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry,Camelina sativasyn Camelina sativa ssp. sativa (Brassicaceae), 2n = 40 agr

larkspur: Delphinium consolida (Ranunculaceae) bot gr

laurel (-tree) - Lorbeer(baum) n/m: Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae), 2n = 2x = 48 hort

lavender - Lavendel m: Lavendula angustifolia (Solanaceae) hort

leaf celery - Blattsellerie m: Apium graveolens ssp. secalinum (Umbelliferae) hort

leaf lettuce - Blattsalat m >>> cutting lettuce

leafy spurge: a member of the spurge family native in Europe and Asia; it is characterized by plants containing a white milky sap and flower parts in three's; leafy spurge is an erect, branching, perennial herb 2 to 3½ feet tall, with smooth stems and showy yellow flower bracts; stems frequently occur in clusters from a vertical root that can extend many feet underground; the leaves are small, oval to lance-shaped, somewhat frosted and slightly wavy along the margin; the flowers of leafy spurge are very small and are borne in greenish-yellow structures surrounded by yellow bracts; clusters of these showy, yellow bracts open in late May or early June, while the actual flowers do not develop until mid-June; it displaces native vegetation in prairie habitats and fields through shading and by usurping available water and nutrients and through plant toxins that prevent the growth of other plants underneath it; it also became an aggressive invader and, once present, can completely overtake large areas of open land; it occurs also across much of the northern U.S., with the most extensive infestations reported for Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming; it has been identified as a serious pest; it was transported to the U.S. possibly as a seed impurity in the early 1800s; first recorded from Massachusetts in 1827, leafy spurge spread quickly and reached North Dakota within about 80 years; because of its persistent nature and ability to regenerate from small pieces of root, leafy spurge is extremely difficult to eradicate; biological control offers a highly promising management tactic for leafy spurge; the U.S. Department of Agriculture has shown success using six natural enemies of leafy spurge imported from Europe; these include a stem and root-boring beetle (Oberea erythrocephala), four root-mining flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) and a shoot-tip gall midge (Spurgia esulae); large scale field-rearing and release programs are carried out cooperatively by federal and State officials in many northern states; several systemic herbicides have been found to be effective if applied in June, when the flowers and seeds are developing, or in early to mid-September, when the plants are moving nutrients downward into the roots; Euphorbia esula (Euphorbiaceae) phyt

leek >>> garden leek

lemon - Zitrone(nbaum) f/m: the lemon tree and fruit; the juice of the lemon fruit contains about four times as much citric acid as is found in the orange; it is a major commercial source of citric acid; this is the origin of the term “lemonade” and this yellow fruit has always been popular in temperate countries where limes were unavailable; it is usually too sour to be eaten as a fruit, but it is widely used as a flavoring and garnish in many foods and drinks; the freshly grated peel, known as zest, is also widely used as a flavoring, Citrus limon (Rutaceae), 2n = 2x, 4x = 18, 36 hort >>> hesperidia

lemon balm: Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) hort

lemon for candied peel: Citrus medica (Rutaceae), 2n = 2x = 18 hort >>> hesperidia

lemongrass - Zitronengras n: it is native to India and the nearby island of Sri Lanka; it is found growing naturally in tropical grasslands; it grows in dense clumps that can grow to 1.8 m in height and about 1.2 m in width; the straplike leaves are 1.3-2.5 cm wide, about 0.9 m long, and have gracefully drooping tips; the evergreen leaves are bright bluish-green and release a citrus aroma when crushed; it is the leaves that are used as flavoring and in medicine; they are steam distilled to extract lemongrass oil, an old standby in the the perfumer's palette of scents, Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) hort

lentil - Linse f: a short-statured, annual, self-pollinating, and food legume; the crop is grown in dryland cereal-based rotations because of its nitrogen-fixing ability, its high-protein seeds for human consumption, and its straw, which is a valued livestock feed; the putative progenitor of the cultivated lentil is Lens culinaris ssp. orientalis, which is distributed from Greece in the west to Uzbekistan in the east, and from the Crimean Peninsula in the north to Jordan in the south;  the lentil ranks among the oldest and the most appreciated grain legumes of the old world (back to 8,000-7,000 BC; the oldest carbonized remains of lentil are from Franchthi cave in Greece dated to 11,000 BC and from Tell Mureybit in Syria dated 8500-7500 BC; it is cultivated from the Atlantic coast of Spain and Morocco in the west, to India in the east; the place of origin of the cultivated lentil is not known with certainty; the greatest variability in the cultigen is found Himalaya-Hindu-Kush junction area between India, Afghanistan, and Turkestan; presently, the major lentil producing regions are Asia (58 percent of the area) and the West Asia-North Africa region (37 percent of the acreage of developing countries); it is the most important pulse in Bangladesh and Nepal, where it significantly contributes to the diet; farmers also grow lentils in India, Iran, and Turkey; other significant producers in the developing world include Argentina, China, Ethiopia, Morocco, Pakistan, and Syria; global lentil production is growing rapidly; it has risen by 112 percent from 1.3 million t in the period 1979-1981 to 2.9 million t in the period 1993-1995, resulting from a 54 percent increase in area to 3.42 million hectares and an increase in productivity of 38 percent from 600 kg/ha to 825 kg/ha; ICARDA has a mandate to improve this crop, Lens culinaris (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 14 agr >>> ICARDA

lespedeza: Lespedeza stipulacea (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 20 agr

lesser bindweed >>> corn bindweed

lesser broomrape: Orobanche minor (Orobanchaceae) bot agr

lettuce - Salat m: Lactuca sativa, L. serriola (Compositae), 2n = 2x = 18 hort >>> Picture 011

Levant garlic: this species has two variants,leeks and Levant garlic, the first is tetraploid and set seed freely, while Levant garlic is a hexaploid and is sterile; the breeding procedures are those of open-pollinated crops, Allium ampeloprasum (Allicaceae), 2n = 4x, 6x = AAA’A” = 32, 48 hort

lilac - Flieder m: Syringa ssp. (Oleaceae) hort

lily - Lilie f: Lilium ssp. (Liliaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort

Lima bean - Limabohne f: syn Sieva bean syn butter bean; the plant is self-pollinating, but some natural cross-pollination occurs; named after the capital of Peru, archaeological remains of this bean have been found there dating from 6,000 BC; however, it is thought that this bean probably originated in the Guatemala area of Central America and was taken to South America by early travelers; the green shelled beans are eaten as a vegetable, and the dried beans are also cooked and eaten, Phaseolus lunatus (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort >>> pulse

limber pine: Pinus flexilis (Pinaceae) fore >>> pine

lime: sharp-tasting green or greenish-yellow citrus fruit of the small thorny lime bush, native to India; the white flowers are followed by the fruits, which resemble lemons but are more round in shape; they are rich in vitamin C; in the late 18th century, the British admiral NELSON insisted on his sailors drinking lime juice, in order to prevent scurvy, which is due to a deficiency of Vitamin C; this earned the British the nickname of “limeys”, Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), 2n = 2x = 18 hort >>> hesperidia

lime-tree - Linde(nbaum) f/m: Tilia ssp. (Tiliaceae) fore

linden >>> lime-tree

linseed >>> flax

liquorice - Süssholz n: the distribution is eastern Europe including Russia and Hungary; it grows on dry and sandy soils and likes moderate moisture and temperature; it is common as a herb since more than 2,000 years, Glycyrhiza glabra (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort >>> Picture 006

litchi: Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), 2n = 2x = 30 hort

little bluestem (broom beardgrass syn wiregrass, bunchgrass syn prairie beardgrass syn broom) : the most important dominant perennial grass of uplands in the tallgrass prairie of U.S.A. and Canada; usually tufted, sometimes with short rhizomes; presently, it is a dominant species, most significantly on coarse-textured soils, in the mixed-grass prairie region; its wide geographical adaptation to dry soils suggests little bluestem has potential for biomass production in areas unsuitable for most other grass species in the North American steppe; because of its >>> C4 metabolism, little bluestem develops primarily during the warm weather of summer and early fall, and it has excellent drought resistance, Schizachyrium scoparium syn Andropogon scoparius (Poaceae), 2n=40 agr hort

little millet: Panicum miliare (Gramineae) agr

loblolly pine: the principal commercial southern pine of US; a large, resinous, and fragrant tree with rounded crown of spreading branches, height: 24-30 m; diameter: 0.6-0.9 m; needles are evergreen and 13-23 cm long; three in bundle, stout, stiff, often twisted, and green; the bark is blackish-gray, thick, deeply furrowed into scaly ridges exposing brown inner layers; the cones: are 7.5-13 cm long, conical, dull brown, and almost stalkless; they opening at maturity but remaining attached; cone-scales raised, keeled, with short stout spine; the habitat  is deep, poorly drained flood plains to well-drained slopes of rolling, hilly uplands; it forms pure stands, often on abandoned farmland; it is among the fastest-growing southern pines, it is extensively cultivated in forest plantations for pulpwood and lumber, Pinus taeda (Pinaceae) fore

locust >>> carob

locust tree: Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae) fore

lodgepole pine: Pinus contorta (Pinaceae) fore

loganberry: Rubus loganobaccus (Rosaceae) hort

Lolium x hybridum: an artificial grass hybrid between Lolium perenne x Lolium multiflorum; it is used in agriculture, (Gramineae) agr >>> Picture 013

loose-leaved lettuce >>> cutting lettuce

lop grass >>> drooping brome

loquat: Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) hort

lovage: Levisticum officinale (Umbelliferae) hort >>> Picture 010

lovegrass - Liebesgras n: Eragrostis ssp. (Gramineae) bot agr

love-in-a-mist: Nigella damascena (Ranunculaceae) bot agr

lowbush blueberry: Vaccinium angustifolium (Ericaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort

lulos: Solanum quitoense (Solanaceae) hort

lucerne >>> alfalfa

luffa: Luffa cylindrica, L. acutangula (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x = 26 hort

lulos: Solanum quitoense (Solanaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort

lupin - Lupine f: Lupinus ssp. (Leguminosae) bot agr hort >>> sweet yellow lupin >>> white lupin >>> blue lupin

lychee >>> litchi

lyme grass: Elymus europaeus (Gramineae) bot agr

Leymus racemosus (Gramineae), 2n = 4x = 28 (JJNN) bot agr

Macadamia nut - Makadamianuss f: Macadamia spp. (Proteaceae), 2n = 2x = 28 fore hort

macaroni wheat - Makaroniweizen m >>> durum wheat >>> wheat

Macha wheat: Triticum macha (Gramineae) bot agr >>> wheat

Madagascar bean >>> Lima bean

magua: Tropaeolum tuberosum (Tropaeolaceae) hort

maize, corn US - Mais m: it is the world's forth most important crop, behind only wheat, rice, and potatoes; there are more than 327 million acres of maize planted each year, worldwide; US produces over 526 millions US tons per year; other countries that produce a large amount of maize include: Africa, Argentina, Brazil, China, France, India, Mexico, Romania, Russia, and South Africa; the best place to grow maize is in well-aerated, deep, warm soil with a lot of organic matter, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K); semi-high summer temperatures, warm nights, and adequate, well distributed rainfall helps it even more during the growing season; the growing season and day length also have a factor on growth; maize evolved in Mexico or Central America about 6,000 years ago; it developed from a small wild plant with a pod-pop of cob; modern maize has its cob enclosed in the one sheath, which prevents dissemination of seed; it has imperfect flowers; it is monoecious, cross-pollinating; almost all maize grown maize in the world are hybrid maizes; there are seven types of maize: (a) flint; flint maize kernels are hard and smooth and have little soft starch; flint was probably the first maize Europeans ever laid eyes on; is not grown in USA as much as it is in Asia, Central America, Europe, and South America; in temperate zones, flint maize matures earlier, has better germination, and the plant vigor is earlier than in dent, (b) flour; flour maize contains a lot of soft starch, and has almost no dent; though it is not used much anymore, it is grown in the drier sections of the USA and in the Andean region of South America; it is an older type of maize, and was found in a lot of graves of the Aztecs and Incas; since the kernel is so soft, the American Indians could make it into flour, (c) pop; it is an extreme form of flint; it has a very small proportion of soft starch; it is a very minor crop, and is gown mostly for humans to eat;  the reason is "pops" so well, is because of the horny endosperm, which is a tough, stretchy material that can resist the pressure of steam, which is generated in the hot kernel until it has enough force to explode or "pop", (d) sweet; this type of maize has an almost clear, horny kernel when it is still young; the kernels become wrinkled when dry; the ears can be eaten fresh, or can be stored in cans; the only difference between sweet and dent maize is that sweet genotype has a gene, which prevents some sugar from being converted into starch; it is grown a lot as a winter crop, in the southern USA, (e) dent; getting its name from the dent in the crown of the seed is grown more than any other type of maize; millions of tons of grain are produced from dent corn; it is used for human and industrial use, and for livestock feed; the starch reaches the summit of the seed, and the sides are also starchy; the denting is caused by the drying and shrinking of the starch; the dent corn grown in the Corn Belt of USA came from a mix of New England flints and gourseed (an old variety of corn grown by the Indians in southeaster North America, (f) waxy; seeds appear waxy; chemically, it has a different type of starch than normal starch; it was developed in China, and some waxy mutations have occurred in America dent strains; very little is grown, and that which is, is used for producing a starch similar to tapioca starch, (g) pod; pod maize is not grown commercially, but it is used a lot in studying the phylogenesis of maize; it resembles varieties of the primitive forms; every seed is enclosed in a pod and the whole ear is also enclosed in a husk; recent molecular studies demonstrated that the two main modern divisions of maize arose about 3,000 years ago, as maize arrived in what is now the southwestern USA and, at about the same time, on the islands of the Caribbean;  temperate maize spread further north and east across North America, while tropical maize spread south; the temperate-tropical division remains today; what maintains it are differences in disease susceptibility and photosensitivity — essentially, how daylength affects flowering time;  the two maize types are now so different from each other that they do not cross well, and their hybrids are not well adapted anywhere, Zea mays (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 20; 2C DNA content 4.9-12.6 pg = 2400-3200 Mb agr >>> Tables 15, 16, 32, 35, 48 >>> Picture 010

Malabar nightshade: this green climbing spinach is native of eastern India, the red species in China, respectively; its a biennial plant, although grown annually; the fleshy leaves are prepared similar as spinach in Asian countries, Basella alba, B. rubra (Chenopodiaceae) hort >>> Picture 008

mallow - Malve f: Malva ssp. (Malvaceae) hort

mandarin - Mandarine f: syn tangerine; a small orange; often known as the “loose-skinned” oranges because of their easy peeling; these fruits are used mainly as a dessert; they probably originated in Vietnam and are of ancient cultivation in China and Japan, Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), 2n = 2x = 18 hort >>> hesperidia

mangel: Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae)

mangel-wurzel >>> beet

mango - Mango(pflaume) f/f: Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), 2n = 2x = 40 hort

mangold - Mangold m: Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae) agr hort

mangosteen: Garcinia mangostana (Guttoferae) hort

Manila aloe >>> cantala

Manila hemp - Manilahanf m >>> abaca

manna: Cassia fistula (Leguminosae) hort

marigold - Studentenblume f: Tagetes ssp. (Compositae) hort

maritime pine: Pinus pinaster (Pinaceae) fore

marjoram - Marjoran m: Origanum majorana (Labiatae) hort

marrow fat pea >>> green pea

marrow-stem kale - Markstammkohl m: Brassica oleracea convar. acephala var. medullosa (Brassicaceae) agr hort >>> Figure 8

mash >>> urd bean

marsh trefoil: Menyanthes trifoliata (Menyanthaceae) bot agr

marvel of Peru: Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae) hort

masterwort: Astrantia ssp. (Umbelliferae) bot agr

mate` - Mate(strauch) m/m: Ilex paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae), 2n = 4x = 40 hort

matgrass: Nardus ssp. (Gramineae) bot agr

Mauritius hemp - Mauritiushanf m: also known as green aloe, female karata, maguey, mayuey criollo, cocuisa, giant cabuya, and aloes vert, is a robust “shrub” with a basal rosette about 2.5 to 3.5 m in diameter and flowering stalks 5 to 10 m in height; it has no taproot, relatively fine lateral roots, and many fine roots; the green to yellow-green leaves are linear-lanceolate to oblanceolate, pointed at the tip, and are fleshy with thread-like parallel fibers; the inflorescences (panicles) are terminal and contain many pendulous, fragrant, white, greenish-white, yellowish-green, or pale bluegreen, 2.5 to 3.3 long by 1.0 by 1.8 cm wide flowers; bulbils 1 to 16 cm long develop abundantly on the peduncles after flower dehiscence; Mauritius hemp helps hold the soil, furnishes cover for wildlife, and adds to the aesthetics of wildlands; the species is widely, although not heavily, used as a landscaping plant for accent and curiosity; it was once widely cultivated for fiber, hence the common name, Furcraea gigantea var. willemettiana syn Furcraea gigantean syn Agave gigantean (Agavaceae), 2n = 2x = 60 agr

May beet - Teltower Rübchen n: there are three different types grown: (1) a spherical type of beet with white, white-purple or yellow roots, (2) a conical type of beet with a white, yellow or purple head (also called stubble beet or autumn beet, mainly used for animal feeding and as green manure, and (3) a type with small and short beet habit (also called Teltow beet or Navet Petit de Berlin); May beet is one of the oldest vegetable crop; it derives from the Mediterranean region or Asia Minor; the leaves can be up 30 cm height; the beets are eaten when they are still young and showing a diameter of about 7 cm; well-known varieties are “Goldball”, “Mailänder”, or “Dutch White” Brassica napus var. rapa (Brassicaceae) agr hort >>> Picture 002

meadow saffron - Herbstzeitlose f: Colchicum autumnale (Liliaceae) bot agr hort

meadow fescue: Festuca pratensis (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 14 agr

meadowfoam: Limnanthes ssp. (Limnanthaceae) bot agr

meadow foxtail: Alopecurus pratensis (Gramineae) bot agr

meadow soft grass >>> common velvet grass

medlar: Mespilus germanica (Rosaceae) bot hort

melon - Melone f >>> cantaloupe

Michaelmas daisy >>> aster

mignonette: Reseda ssp. (Resedaceae) hort

mikan: produces sweet, seedless and easy-peeling fruits which much resemble mandarins but belong to a different citrus species; it is of Chinese origin, but introduced to the West via Japan; in Japan, it is known as “unshu mikan”, in China, as “wenzhou migan”; recorded cultivation of the "wenzhou migan" date back some 2,400 years; it was listed as a tribute item for Imperial consumption in the TANG Dynasty; the best record of the cultivation of this variety in ancient China is from the Jijia JULU, written by Han YAN, the governor of the region and published in 1178, Citrus unshiu (Rutaceae) hort >>> Schlegel (2008)

milfoil >>> yarrow

milkvetch >>> astragalus

millet - Hirse f: a general name for a variety of species that is grown in similar regions to sorghum; millet is more drought resistant; different millets may have evolved in different parts of the world, including Africa and Asia; it has been grown in China for about 5,000 years; five types are described: (a) common, Panicum miliaceum, (b) finger, Eleusine coracana, (c) foxtail, Setaria italica, (d) pearl, Pennisetum americanum, (f) Japanese barnyard, Echinochloa frumentacea, (Gramineae) agr hort >>> Table 35, 48

moneywort: Lysimachia nummularia (Primulaceae) bot agr

Mongolian oak - Mongolische Eiche f: Quercus mongolica (Fagaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 fore

monkeyflower: Mimulus ssp. (Scrophulariaceae) hort

morello: Cerasus vulgaris var. austera (Rosaceae) hort

morello >>> morello cherry

moth bean: syn mat bean; a very drought-resistant, self-pollinated grain legume that requires hot tropical temperatures; the green pods may be eaten as a vegetable, the seeds are eaten cooked, and the plant makes a useful forage crop, Vigna aconitifolia (Leguminosae) hort >>> Table 16 >>> pulse

Moricandia >>> wild crucifer

mountain clover: Trifolium montanum (Leguminosae) bot agr

mountain savory: Satureja montana (Labiatae) hort

mountain spinach - Bergspinat m: Atriplex hortensis ssp. viridis (Chenopodiaceae) hort

mugwort (syn artemisa, carline thistle, chiu ts'ao, common mugwort, douglas mugwort, felon herb, sailor's tobacco, wormwood) - Beifuß m: a perennial herb native to Africa, temperate Asia, and Europe, widely naturalized in most parts of the world; growing on hedgebanks and waysides, uncultivated and waste land; cultivation is fairly easy; it prefers slightly alkaline, well-drained loamy soil, in a sunny position; a tall-growing shrubby plant, with angular stems, which are and often purplish; the leaves are smooth and dark green above and covered with a cottony down beneath; they are alternate, pinnately lobed, and segmented; the small greenish yellow flowers are panicled spikes with a cottony appearance; blooming is from July to October; it is closely related to common wormwood (absinthe); gather leaves and stems when in bloom, dry for later herb use; the leaves have an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphococcus aureus, Bacillus typhi, B. dysenteriae, B. streptococci,E. coli, B. subtilis, and Pseudomonas; a weak tea made from the infused plant is a good all-purpose insecticide; the fresh or the dried plant repels insects, Artemisia vulgaris (Asteraceae), 2n = 2x = 18; 2C DNA content 6.0 pg hort >>> Picture 014

mulberry - Maulbeere f, Maulbeerbaum m: Morus alba (Moraceae), 2n = 2x = 28 hort

multiplier (onion): Allium cepa var. aggregatum (Alliaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort

mung bean: it is most widely cultivated throughout the Southern half of Asia including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Eastern parts of Java, Eastern Malaysia, South China, and Central Asia, Phaseolus radiatus syn Vigna radiata (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 22, 2C DNA content 0.53 pg = 500 Mb hort >>> pulse

mungo bean >>> urd bean

moong >>> mung bean

moth bean: Vigna aconitifolia (Leguminosae) hort >>> pulse

mushroom - Champignon m: in general, it is the macroscopic sporing body of a fungus; mushrooms usually have gills, while toadstools have pores; both edible and poisonous mushrooms occur; the cultivation of edible mushrooms is economically important, but breeding of this crop is rather difficult; the cultivated mushroom (A. bisporus) or any edible fungus similar to it in appearance, Agaricus bisporus hort

musk melon >>> cantaloupe

musk okra: Hibiscus esculentus (Malvaceae) hort

mustards - Senf(e) m: Brassica spp. and Sinapis alba (Brassicaceae) agr >>> Figure 8

myrtle - Myrthe f: any plant of the genus Myrtus, e. g. M. communis, having evergreen leaves, fragrant white flowers and aromatic berries, (Myrtaceae) bot hort

napier grass: it is used as a natural pesticide;  the grass lures the corn borer whose gluttonous larva destroys a large portion of the maize cultivation of Africa every year; the moths prefer the grass to the maize and turns out into a fatal trap through this; the grass produces a poisonous sticky substance, stick the caterpillars at the grass remain and die; it is planted by farmers around her maize fields, e.g., in Kenya Pennisetum purpureum (Gramineae) phyt agr

nasturzium: a native plant of Peru; it was introduced as an annual ornamental plant showing a wide range of flower colors; young and green fruits are sometimes eaten after pickling; in biological horticulture, it is used to prevent insect attacks to fruit trees, when grown around the the stem, Tropaeolum majus (Tropaeolacae) hort

narbon vetch: Vicia narbonensis (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 14 hort

narcissus: Narcissus pseudo-narcissus, N. poiticus (Iridaceae) hort

narrow-leafed lupin >>> blue lupin

navet petit de Berlin - Teltower Rübchen n: it is closely related to May beet and autumn beet ; it was mainly grown in some regions of Prussia and around Berlin (Germany) ; it is a selection from a Polish variety “Piedrowski” showing yellow flesh, although, in 1885, VILMORIN (a French breeder) described it as a white-flesh type; the beet was not grown anymore since long, however some restaurants started again to include it in the spectrum of old sorts of vegetable; in addition, it had to be reselected from the Polish material since original seeds got lost, Brassica campestris var. rapa (Brassicaceae) hort >>> May beet >>> Figures 8 >>> Picture 2

navy >>> French bean

neem (syn niem, neem, margosa, nimtree, Indian lilac): Indian (Hindi) name of the tree; its leaves and seeds are known for insecticidal  properties and seeds for retarding nitrification due to the action of triterpenes present in them which have nitrification inhibiting  properties, Azadirachta  indica syn Melia indica (Meliaceae) bot

New Zealand spinach: Tetragonia tetragonoides (Tetragoniaceae) hort

niger seed: Guizotia abyssinica (Compositae), 2n = 2x = 20 hort agr

nira >>> Chinese chive

noble cane >>> sugarcane

nopal >>> pencas

Northern wheatgrass: Agropyron dasystachyum (Gramineae) bot agr

Norway spruce: Picea abies (Pinaceae) fore

notch-seeded buckwheat: Fagopyrum emarginatum (Polygonaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 agr

nutmeg: Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae), 2n = 6x = 42 hort

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