Crops III
Breeding Home
Plant  kingdom
Time scale
Crop plants
Crops I
Crops II
Crops III
Crops IV
Pests & Diseases
Rye introgression
Rye gene map
Wheat interchange
Author' books





... more 10.000 glossed keywords and links to more than 100 figures and schemes, about 100 tables etc. can be obtained in addition to this limited INTERNET version either on CD-ROM or in modified design as book by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA

oak - Eiche f: Quercus ssp. (Fagaceae) fore >>> Mongolian oak >>> daimyo oak

oats - Hafer m: this species is a >>> hexaploid and the first controlled crosses were made by a Scottish farmer, >>> Patrick SHERIFF, in 1860; oats did not become important to man as early as wheat or barley; oats probably per­sisted as a weed-like plant in other cereals for centuries prior to being cultivated by itself; some scientists believe that our present cultivated oats developed as a mutation from wild oat that may have taken place in Asia Minor or south­eastern Europe; oldest known oat grains were found in Egypt among remains of the 12th Dynasty, which was about 2,000 BC; these probably were weeds and not actually cultivated by the Egyptians; the oldest known cultivated oats were found in caves in Switzerland that are believed to belong to the Bronze Age; the center of greatest variety of forms is in Asia Minor where most all subspecies are in contact with each other; oats were first brought to North America with other grains in 1602 and planted on the Elizabeth Islands off the coast of Massachusetts; as early as 1786, George WASHINGTON sowed 580 acres to oats; by the 1860s and 1870s, the westward shift of oat acreage in the United States had moved into the middle and upper Mississippi Valley, which is its major area of production today; oats are chiefly a European and North American crop; these areas have the cool, moist climate to which oats are best adapted; Russia, Canada, the United States, Finland, and Poland are the leading oat producing countries; oats are adapted to a wide range of soil types, thus temperature and moisture conditions are the usual limiting factors as to where oats are grown; some winter oats are produced in the United States, but most are spring oats produced mainly in the north central states; oats have been used as livestock and human foods since ancient times; some have been used as pasture, hay or silage; but most have been used as a feed grain; oat straw has been an important bedding for livestock through history, Avena ssp. (Gramineae), 2n = 6x, AACCDD = 42, 2C DNA content 25.2 pg = 11300 Mb bot agr >>> Tables 14, 15, 16, 30, 32, 35, 48 >>> wild oat

oca: Oxalis tuberosa (Oxalidaceae), 2n = 6x = 66 hort

oil palm - Ölpalme f: African palm tree; it is native to West Africa; this palm has the highest yield of vegetable oil of any crop; the oil is obtained from the fruit which contains two distinct types of oil; palm oil is extracted from the soft fruit flesh, which contains 45-55% of oil; palm kernel oil comes from the seed, which contains about 50% of oil; palm oil is used as food or processed into margarine, soaps, and livestock feeds, Elaeis guineensis (Palmae), 2n = 2x = 32; 2C DNA content 2.0-2.4 pg hort >>> Table 16

oil radish - Ölrettich m: Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis (Brassicaceae) agr

oilseed rape >>> rapeseed

okra: this is an annual crop grown for its fruits that are cooked and eaten as a green vegetabl; there has been considerable hybridization with wild species and there is much genetic variation; it derives from the Old World hibiscus family; its red-and-yellow flowers are followed by long, sticky, green fruits known as >>> ladies' fingers or >>> bhindi; the fruits are cooked in soups and stews, Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), 2n = 4x, T’T’YY = 130 hort

old cocoym >>> taro

olibanum: also known as frankincense in its centre of production in eastern Africa; the word derives from old French “franc encens” (= pure incense); it is an aromatic gum obtained from trees of the genus Bowellia and, when thrown on to glowing charcoal, it produces an aromatic smoke fore hort

olive - Olive(nbaum) f/m: Olea europaea (Oleaceae), 2n = 2x = 46 hort

onion (common ~) - Zwiebel f: plants belonging to the genus Allium are recognized by the pungent smell or taste of “onion“, which they produce when their tissues are crushed or tasted; they are biennial or perennial bulbous herbs; the bulbs are formed by the swollen leaf bases attached to the base of the underground part of the stem; in a few species there are very long sheathing leaf bases, which are much less swollen, and other have rhizomes or storage roots; onions are widely spread throughout the temperate northern hemisphere of the world; >500 of species are common in the old world; there are >80 species found in the new world; chives is the only species found in both the old and the new world; onions have been used by man for several centuries, e.g., during ancient civilizations of Egypt, Rome, Greece, and China; Allium cepa (Alliaceae), 2n = 2x = 16, 2C DNA content = 33.5 pg hort >>> chive

opuntia - Feigenkaktus m: fruits are eaten, leaves are used as fodder for animals; within the sub-tribe Opuntioideae there are several species used as crop and horticultural plants; there is special use for production of the stain “carmine red“ by the ecto-parasite Cochenille (Dactylopius coccus) agr hort

orache: a former vegetable completely substituted by spinach, except a few southern regions of Germany; a common wild plant, however native of western Asia; there are genotypes showing light green and red leaves, it can grow up to 2 m height; it can become a weed when seed production is not controlled, Atriplex hortensis (Chenopodiaceae) hort >>> Picture 007

orange: Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae), 2n = 2x = 18 hort >>> hesperidia

orchard grass: Dactylis glomerata (Gramineae) agr

oregano - Oregano m: Origanum vulgare (Labiatae) hort

oryzopsis: Oryzopsis miliacea (Gramineae) bot hort

osier - Korbweide f >>> basket willow

ox-eye chamomile: Anthemis tinctoria (Asteraceae) hort

oyster cap fungus: Pleurotus ostreatus hort

pak-choi: Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (Brassicaceae), 2n = 2x, AA = 20 >>> Figure 8

palisadegrass: a member of a pantropical grass genus containing about 100 species mainly from the African continent, is found in a wide range of habitats from semi-desert to swamps; while grasses from this genus have been continuously exploited by local pastoralists for millennia, the interest in species of this genus as sown and managed forage only began in the 1960s; this occurred first on a limited scale in humid, coastal, tropical Australia, followed by tropical South Africa, and later in Brazil in the early 1970s; currently, the genus Brachiaria is the most widely used forage grass in the South American savannas due to its physiological tolerance to low-fertility acid soils of the tropics; Brachiaria brizantha (palisadegrass), B. decumbens (signalgrass),B. humidicola (koroniviagrass), and B. ruziziensis (ruzigrass) are the most commercially exploited brachiariagrasses; their economic importance is greatest in tropical America, where extensive adoption over the past three decades has had a revolutionary impact on the productivity of vast areas of previously underused, marginal soils; Brachiaria alone accounts for at least 85 % of the cultivated pastures in Brazil, covering over 50 millions hectares and sustaining the largest commercial herd in the world, i. e. about 205 million heads; two cultivars, B. decumbens cv. ‘Basilisk’ and B. brizantha cv. ‘Marandu’ are undoubtedly the most widely grown species not only in the Brazilian savannas but throughout the tropics; the rapid expansion of their acreage did not occur without problems; both cultivars have significant limitations; the first one lacks resistance to a ubiquitous family of sucking insects, the spittlebugs (Homoptera: Cercopidae); the second, while resistant, requires higher soil fertility and does not tolerate waterlogged soils; Brazilian pastures are severely degraded because of inadequate fertilization and mismanagement; renovation of pastures and intensification of production practices demand new cultivars; eight cultivars are presently commercialized by a dynamic seed industry, dominated by Brazilian companies, and seven of these cultivars are direct selections from naturally occurring germplasm collected in Africa; all the cultivars are polyploid (2n = 4x = 36) and apomictic which held back the initiation of brachiariagrass breeding programs until suitable sexual germplasm was developed in the mid-1980s; to increase genetic variability in the genus in hopes of generating new cultivars for pasture diversification, an extensive program based on intra- and interspecies hybridization was undertaken at the Embrapa Beef Cattle Center in 1988 with the objective of determining the inheritance of apomixis and thus manipulating this character for the development of new improved hybrids; at first, hybridizations were between sexual B. ruziziensis and apomictic B. brizantha or B. decumbens; a great number of hybrids was obtained and some are under agronomic evaluations; some interesting sexual hybrids were selected to be crossed to some superior ecotypes of the paternal species; the B. ruziziensis/B. decumbens/B. brizantha complex provides a wealth of genetic variation for the introgression of derived genes of interest, such as for spittlebugs resistance and nutritive value, among others, Brachiaria brizantha (Poaceae), 2n = 4x = 36 agr

pansy: Viola wittrockiana ssp. hiemalis (Violaceae) hort

papaya - Papaya f: Carica papaya (Caricaceae), 2n = 2x = 28 hort

paprika - Paprika m: Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae) hort

Para nut - Paranuss f >>> Brazil nut

park red fescue: Festuca rubra genuina (Gramineae) agr

parsley - Petersilie f: Petroselinum crispum (Umbelliferae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort

parsnip: a native plant of Europe; after common cropping in the past it became are rarely grown vegetable; well-known varieties are “Sutons Student”, “White Germ” and a hybrid “Gladiator”; during the end of the annual season a long whitish root is developed; it tastes similar like celery, Pastinaca sativa (Umbelliferae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort >>> Picture 002

passion fruit - Passionsfrucht f: Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae), 2n = 2x = 18 hort

pattypan squash: Cucurbita pepo convar. pattisonina (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x = 40 hort

pawpaw (paw paw syn paw-paw syn common pawpaw) - Indianerbanane f: a species of the pawpaw genus in the same plant family as the custard-apple, cherimoya, sweetsop, ylang-yllang, and >>> soursop; the pawpaw is native to the eastern U.S.A. and adjacent southernmost Ontario, Canada, from New York west to eastern Nebraska, and south to northern Florida and eastern Texas; it is a patch-forming (clonal) understory tree found in well-drained, deep, fertile bottom-land and hilly upland habitat, with large, simple leaves and large fruits, the largest edible fruit indigenous to North America; the large shrub or small tree growing to a height of 11 m (rarely to 14 m) with a trunks 20-30 cm or more in diameter; the large leaves of pawpaw trees are clustered symmetrically at the ends of the branches, giving a distinctive imbricated appearance to the tree's foliage; flowers are perfect, about one to two inches across, rich red-purple or maroon when mature, with three sepals and six petals; they are borne singly on stout, hairy, axillary peduncles, the flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as or slightly before the new leaves appear, and have a faint fetid or yeasty smell; the fruit of the pawpaw is a large, yellowish-green to brown berry, 5–16 cm long and 3–7 cm broad, weighing from 20–500 g, containing several brown seeds 15-25 mm in diameter embedded in the soft, edible fruit pulp, the conspicuous fruits begin developing after the plants flower; they are initially green, maturing by September or October to yellow or brown; when mature, the heavy fruits bend the weak branches down; fruits, ripe after the first frost, have long been a favorite treat throughout the tree's extensive native range in eastern North America, and on occasion have been sold locally at farmers' markets; they have a sweet flavor somewhat similar to >>> banana, >>> mango, and >>> cantaloupe, varying significantly by source or cultivar, with more protein than most fruits; in recent years, cultivation of pawpaws for fruit production has attracted renewed interest, particularly among organic growers, as a native fruit with few to no pests, successfully grown without pesticides; the commercial cultivation and harvesting of pawpaws is strong in southeastern Ohio, and also being explored in Kentucky and Maryland, as well as various areas outside the species' native range, including California, the Pacific Northwest, and Europe, Asimina triloba (Annonaceae), 2n = 2x = 18 hort

pea >>> garden pea

peach - Pfirsich(baum) m/m: Persica davidiana syn Prunus persica (Rosaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort

peach palm: common names are peyibay(e), pejivalle (Spanish), pejibaye (Costa Rica, Nicaragua), chantaduro (Colombia, Ecuador), pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Venezuela), tembe’ (Bolivia), piba’ (Panama), cachipay (Colombia), pupunha (Portuguese); a cultivated fruit tree and “heart of palm”, it s an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon; in general, it the most important palm of pre-Columbian America and constituted the main crop of the Amerindians of an extensive territory of the humid tropics and even some areas of the dry tropics; because organic material easily decomposes in the archaeological sites of the humid tropics, there are few references to findings of peach palm material, which enable its past to be reconstructed; the oldest come from seeds found in various localities on the two coasts of Costa Rica and date from 2300 to 1700 BC, when it is assumed that it was already cultivated; when contact with Europeans took place, accounts indicate that it was the main crop and sustenance of the indigenous population of the humid tropics of Costa Rica; the importance of the peach palm also extended to numerous tribes of lower Central America and the humid tropics of South America, scattered across the basins of the Cauca, Magdalena, San Juan, Orinoco and Amazon Rivers and their tributaries as well as certain other areas, Bactris gasipaes (Palmae) fore bot

peanut: it is also called a four-foliate legume with yellow sessile flowers and subterranean fruits; it is native to South America, and it originated between southern Bolivia and northern Argentina from where it spread throughout the New World as Spanish explorers discovered its versatility; at present, farmers in Asia and Africa also cultivate it under a wide range of environmental conditions in areas between 40 degrees South and 40 degrees North of the equator; the largest producers of groundnut are China and India, followed by Sub-Saharan African countries and Central and South America, most of the crop is produced where average rainfall is 600 to 1,200 mm and mean daily temperatures are more than 20 °C; it became a major oilseed crop of the tropics and subtropics; the seeds are rich in protein and oil; the genus Arachis is widely distributed in the north and central regions of South America; a special variety is the Spanish peanut, its kernels are small to medium size with smooth skin, and the kernel color ranges form a pale pinkish buff to a light brown during storage; this type of peanuts are used predominantly in peanut candy, although significant quantities also are used for salted peanuts and peanut butter; they have a higher oil content than other types of peanuts; the so-called runner peanut is the most widely used peanut for making peanut butter, peanut candies, baked goods, and snack nuts), Arachis hypgaea (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x, 4x = 20, 40; 2C DNA content 4.3, 10.4 pg; two diploid wild species (A. duranensis and A. stenosperma) show AA genome agr >>> Table 16 >>> Kersting’s groundnut >>> gynophore

pear - Birne f, Birnbaum m: gritty-textured edible fruit of the pear tree, native to temperate regions of Europe and Asia; white flowers precede the fruits, which have a greenish-yellow and brown skin and taper towards the stalk; pear trees are cultivated for their fruit which are eaten fresh or canned; a wine known as perry is made from pear juice; pears and apples are antique fruits, and both HOMER and PLINY the Elder recorded the names of ancient cultivars of each,Pyrus communis (Rosaceae), 2n = 2x, 3x = 34, 51 hort >>> SCHLEGEL (2007)

pearl millet - Perlhirse f: also known as bulrush millet, spiked millet, and cattail millet, and as bajra in India; this is an ancient crop and the most important of all the millets; it originated in Africa but was taken to India at an early date; its value lies in its tolerance of poor soils and low rainfall; the plant is open-pollinated and exhibits extreme variation; hybrid varieties are highly successful in India until the breakdown of vertical resistance to downy mildew (Sclerospora graminicola), Pennisetum americanum and P. glaucum syn P. typhoides (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 14 >>> millet

pecan (nut): Carya laciniosa syn C. pecan (Juglandaceae), 2n = 2x = 32 hort

pedunculate oak: Quercus robur (Fagaceae) fore

pencas: edible fleshy twigs and fruits; cropping areas about 50,000 ha (Mexico), ~ 60,000 ha (Tunisia), ~100,000 ha (Italy), Opuntia maxima syn Ficus indica (Cactaceae) hort >>> opuntia

pensacola >>> bahiagrass

peony - Pfingstrose f: Paeonia spp. (Paeoniaceae) hort

pepper - Pfeffer m >>> sweet pepper

peppermint - Pfefferminze f: Mentha piperita (Labiatae) hort

perennial ryegrass - Ausdauerndes Weidelgras n: Lolium perenne (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 14, 2C DNA content 4.16 pg agr

perennial sweet leek >>> garden leek

periwinkle: periwinkle as a medical plant is the source of the anticancer alkaloids vincristine (VCR) and vinblastine (VLB), and an antihypertension alkaloid, ajmalicine; the VCR and VLB alkaloids occur in very low concentrations of 20 mg/t and 1 g/t of plant material; they were discovered in leaves of this plant about 40 years ago and are still considered to be among the most exciting anticancer chemotherapeutic agents currently available for clinical use, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) hort

Persian clover - Perserklee m: Trifolium resupinatum (Leguminosae) agr >>> Picture 013

Persian wheat: Triticum carthlicum, T. persicum (Gramineae) bot agr >>> wheat

persimmon: Diospyros kaki (Ebenaceae), 2n = 6x = 90 hort

Peruvian groundcherry (or Cape hooseberry, groundcherry, or Inca berry) - Lampionblume f, Kap-Stachelbeere f, Ananaskirsche f, Andenbeere f, Blasenkirsche f, Judenkirsche f : a species of indigenous to Central America and western South America, but grows well in Africa; the fruit is a small round berry, about the size of a marble, full of small seeds; it is bright yellow when ripe, and very sweet, making it ideal for baking into pies and making jam; the most notable feature is the single lantern-type pod that covers each berry; native to Peru and Chile, where the fruits are casually eaten and occasionally sold in markets but the plant is still not an important cash crop, it has been widely introduced into cultivation in other tropical, subtropical and even temperate areas; the plant was grown by early settlers at the Cape of Good Hope before 1807; South Africa it is commercially cultivated and common as an escape, and the jam and canned whole fruits are staple commodities, often exported; it is cultivated and naturalized on a small scale in Gabon and other parts of Central Africa, Physalisperuviana (Solanaceae) hort >>> Picture 012

pe-tsai >>> Chinese cabbage

Philippine sisal >>> cantala

physic nut >>> Barbados nut

picotee >>> carnation

pigeonpea: the generic name Cajanus derived from the word "Katjang" or "Catjang" of Malay language meaning pod or bean; Africa is regarded as the place of origin; this tropical pulse is called also as red gram, Congo pea, and no-eye pea, and it is a native of Africa; the crop is self-pollinating with about 20% of out-crossing, usually by bees and other insects; for controlled hybridization, the flowers must be emasculated before 9 in the morning on the day before the flower opens; they may be hand-pollinated at the time of emasculation; pigeonpeas have a wide ecological adaptability but they do poorly in the wet tropics and they cannot tolerate frost; most cultivars are short-day plants, Cajanus cajan (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 22, 1C DNA content 0.86 pg hort >>> pulse

pignon d'inde >>> Barbados nut

pimento - Piment(baum) m/m, Nelkenpfeffer m: evergreen trees belonging to the myrtle family, found in tropical parts of the New World; the fruits of this Central American, functionally dioecious tree were mistaken for black pepper by COLUMBUS, the dried berries of the species Pimenta dioica are used as a spice, Pimenta dioica (Myrtaceae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort

pimpernel: Pimpinella ssp. (Umbelliferae) hort

pincushion flower >>> scabious

pine - Kiefer f: Pinus ssp. (Pinaceae) fore >>> Ponderosa pine >>> red pine >>> Eastern white pine

pineapple - Ananas f: Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae), 2n = 2x = 50 hort

pink >>> carnation

Pinyon pine: Pinus edulis (Pinaceae) fore

pistachio (nut): Pistacia vera, P. mutica (Anacardiaceae), 2n = 2x = 30 hort

pita >>> Henequen agave

pita savila >>> savila

pitera de gogo >>> savila

plane-tree - Platane f: Platanus hybrida (Platanaceae) fore hort

plantain - Wegerich m: northern temperate plants; the great plantain (Plantago major) is low-growing with large oval leaves close to the ground, grooved stalks, and spikes of green flowers with purple anthers followed by seeds, which are used in bird food; the most common introduced species is the ribwort plantain (P. lanceolata), native to Europe and Asia and a widespread weed in Australia, Europe, and America; many other species are troublesome weeds; there is also a type of >>> banana known as plantain (in the tropics, a starchy banana that is eaten cooked; in the industrial countries a plantain is a large sweet banana that is eaten raw), Plantago ssp. (Plantaginaceae), P. major 2n = 2x = 12, 2C DNA content 1.7 pg bot agr >>> plane-tree

plum - Pflaume f: Prunus ssp. (Rosaceae), 2n = 6x, CCSSSS = 48 hort >>> Damson plum >>> European plum

Polish wheat - Polnischer Weizen m: Triticum polonicum (Gramineae) bot agr >>> wheat

pomegranate - Granatapfel m: Punica granatum (Punicaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort

Ponderosa pine: Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) fore

poplar - Pappel f: Populus ssp. (P. deltoides, P. tricocarpa, P. tremula, P. tremuloides, P. candicans, and/or P. lasiocarpa) (Salicaceae) fore

poppy - Mohn m: Papaver somniferum (Papaveraceae), 2n = 2x, 4x = 22, 44 hort

Portuguese maritime pine: Pinus pinaster (Pinaceae) fore

portulac: Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) hort

potato - Kartoffel f: it was domesticated more than 6,000 years ago in the high Andes of South America; in the 16th century, Spanish conquistadors brought the potato from Peru to Europe, where it took two centuries that potatoes were introduced into the European diet; the cultivated potatoes first appearing in Europe and later spreading worldwide, were first recorded outside of the Americas in 1567 on the Canary Islands Archipelago; remnant landraces of these early potatoes are still grown in on the Canary Islands; Canary Island landraces possess both Andean and Chilean types, as well as possible hybrids of the two; it is speculated that the early European potato was selected from Chilean introductions before the 1840s because they were better able to reproduce in long-day conditions, in contrast to Andean potatoes that were short-day adapted; at present, potato is the fourth most important crop in developing countries after rice, wheat, and maize; more than 3 billion people consume potatoes; potato production is expanding at an unprecedented rate; approximately 30 percent of the world’s potato crop is currently produced in developing countries, mainly by small-scale farmers; China is the largest producer; the center of origin is South America; the potato derives from the andigena subspecies, which is the progenitor of the tuberosum subspecies; the latter originated from different related diploid populations in different locations through sexual polyploidization; recent molecular studies even demonstrate the close relationship to tomato; particularly, in potato haploids became important for breeding and genetics, Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae), 2n = 4x, AAA’A’ = 48 agr >>> Figure 87 >>> Tables 17, 35

potato onion >>> multiplier (onion)

prickly burr >>> American chestnut

primrose - Primel f: Primula ssp. (Primulaceae) hort >>> Picture 013

Pseudoroegneria strigosa (Gramineae) 2n = 2x = 14 (SS) bot

pumpkin - Kürbis m: Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae), 2n = 2x = 40 hort >>> vegetable marrow

purging nut >>> Barbados nut

purple false brome: a grass species native to southern Europe, northern Africa and southwestern Asia east to India; itt is related to the major cereal grain species wheat, barley, oats, maize, rice, rye, sorghum, and millet; it has many qualities that make it an excellent model organism for functional genomics research in temperate grasses, cereals, and dedicated biofuel crops, such as switchgrass; it shows a small genome (~300-320 Mbp), diploid accessions and a series of polyploid accessions, a small physical stature (approximately 20 cm at maturity), self-fertility, inbreeding, a short lifecycle (annual, less the four months), simple growth requirements, and an efficient transformation system; diploid ecotypes have five easily distinguishable chromosomes that display high levels of chiasma formation at meiosis; the nuclear genome was indistinguishable in size from that of Arabidopsis, making it the simplest genome described in grasses to date; immature embryos exhibited a high capacity for plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis; regenerated plants display very low levels of albinism and have normal fertility, a simple transformation system has been developed based on microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic callus and hygromycin selection; selected ecotypes were resistant to all tested cereal-adapted Blumeria graminis species and cereal brown rusts (Puccinia reconditia); in contrast, different ecotypes displayed resistance or disease symptoms following challenge with the rice blast pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea) and wheat/barley yellow stripe rusts (Puccinia striformis); despite its small stature, B. distachyon has large seeds that should prove useful for studies on grain filling, Brachypodium distachyon (Gramineae), 2n = 2x = 10 bot biot

purple vetch: Vicia benghalensis (Leguminosae) bot hort

pyrethrum: popular name for several cultivated chrysanthemums; the ornamental species Chrysanthemum coccineum, and hybrids derived from it, are commonly grown in gardens; pyrethrum powder, made from the dried flower heads of some species, is a powerful pesticide for aphids and mosquitoes, Chrysanthemum spp. synTanacetum cinerariifolium; the latter syn Chrysanthemum cineriifolium is also a species of daisy, from which natural pyrethrins are extracted; it originated in Dalmatia where people still put dried pyrethrum flowers in their bedding to kill fleas and bed bugs; they have apparently been doing this for centuries, without any resistant fleas or bed bugs appearing, demonstrating that natural pyrethrins are a stable insecticide phyt

quackgrass >>> Agropyron

quassia: Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae), 2n = 4x = 36 hort fore

Queensland arrowroot: also known as “achira” in South America, where it originated; this crop is usually called Queensland arrowroot, or purple arrowroot, in English; it is grown commercially in Australia for extraction of starch from the rhizomes; hybrids of wild species of Canna are a popular ornamental known as the Canna Lily, Canna edulis (Cannaceae), 2n = 2x, 3x = 18, 27 hort

quick-grass >>> Agropyron

quince - Quitte f: Cydonia oblonga (Rosaceae), 2n = 2x = 34 hort

quinine: Cinchona officinalis, Q. pubescens syn C. succirubra (Rosaceae), 2n = 2x = 34 fore

quinoa: Chenopodium quinoa (Chenopodiaceae), 2n = 4x = 36 hort

radish - Rettich m: annual herb native to Europe and Asia, and cultivated for its fleshy, pungent, edible root, which is usually reddish but sometimes white or black; it is eaten raw in salads; there are four basic types, and all of them belong to this one species; the small radish is the temperate zone garden vegetable, grown commercially on quite a large scale; the large radish is popular in the Far East; Mougri radish is grown in Southeast Asia, solely for its leaves and young seed pods, as it has no fleshy root; fodder-radish is similar to Mougri, Raphanus sativus var. radicula (Brassicaceae), 2n = 2x, RR = 18 hort

ragweed: Abrosia eliator (Asteraceae) bot agr

ragi >>> finger millet

rakkyo: Allium cepa syn A. chinense syn A. bakeri (Alliaceae), 2n = 2x, 3x, 4x = 16, 24, 32 hort

rambutan: Nephelium lappaceum (Sapindaceae), 2n = 2x = 22 hort

rampion: a native plant from central Europe from which young leaves were eaten as salad during the winter season; at the end of the first year the plant also forms fleshy roots that can be eaten rawly as well; Campanula rapunculus (Campanulaceae) hort >>> Picture 003

ramie: it is one of the oldest vegetable fibers and has been used for thousands of years; the fibers are found in the bark of the stalk; the fiber is very fine and silk-like, naturally white in color and has a high lus; it was used for Chinese burial shrouds over 2,000 years ago, long before cotton was introduced in the Far East; i is classified chemically as a cellulose fiber, just as cotton, linen, and rayon; leading producers of ramie are China, Taiwan, Korea, the Philippines, and Brazil, Boehmeria nivea (Urticaceae), 2n = 2x = 14 agr

rape: Brassica ssp. (Brassicaceae) agr >>> Figure 8

rapeseed - Raps m: Brassica napus ssp. napus (Brassicaceae), 2n = 4x, AACC = 38 agr >>> Figure 8 >>> Tables 16, 35 >>> Picture 005 >>> Canola

raspberry: Rubus sp. (Rosaceae), 2n=2x=14, R. ideaus 2n=2x=18 hort

ratabaga >>> Figure 8

red bean >>> Adzuki bean

red beet - Rote Bete f: red beets derived from a common origin with sugarbeet, fodder beet or mangel; the wild type, Beta maritima, is found along the coastal lines of Europe;  relicts of the original forms of B. vulgaris were found in north of Holland from 2.000 BC; at the beginning the leaves were used; the beet-like types were yellow (“Golden Beet”), white (“Albina Vereduna”), roundish or conical; the red type was developed during the 19th century, still available as Swiss and Italian landraces “Basano” or “Chioggia”, Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris convar. crassa var. conditiva (Chenopodiaceae) >>> Picture 003

red cabbage - Rotkohl m: Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. rubra (Brassicaceae) hort >>> Figure 8

red clover - Rotklee m: Trifolium pratense (Leguminosae), 2n = 2x = 14 agr >>> Picture 013 >>> Table 35

red currant - Johannisbeere f: Ribes sativum, R. rubrum (Grossulariaceae), 2n = 2x = 16 hort

red fescue - Rotschwingel m: Festuca rubra (Gramineae) agr

red gram >>> pigeonpea

red-head cabbage >>> red cabbage

red pepper >>> sweet pepper

red pine: Pinus resinosa (Pinaceae) fore

red plum >>> American plum

red rice >>> African rice

red spruce: Picea rubens (Pinaceae) fore

red top >>> black bent

reed canary grass: Phalaris arundinacea (Gramineae) agr

rhea >>> ramie

Rhodes grass: the dominant, wild grass in extensive savannas in East and Southern Africa; selection has produced a number of pasture cultivars both perennial and annual; some cultivars are turf grasses and make attractive lawns; this species can be grown over a wide range of habitats and it has been introduced to many areas; it has reasonably high yields of hay, fodder, and grazing, Chloris gayana (Poaceae) agr

rhubarb - Rhabarber m: Rheum rhaponticum (Polygonaceae), 2n = 4x = 44 hort

ribbon grass >>> reed canary grass

rice - Reis m: it is the second to wheat in terms of area and amount of grain produced; it probably originated from India or Southwest Asia where several wild species are found; rice culture spread to China about 5,000 years ago and to Europe about 2,500 years ago; there are more than 1.000 cultivated varieties; it is an annual grass, 80-150 cm height; the inflorescence is a loose panicle containing about 100 single flowered spikelets; it is normally self-pollinating; the mature kernels are enclosed in the pelea and lemma and their color varies from white to brown; it grows with its roots in water; rice transports oxygen to its roots from the leaves; categories of rice are based on length of grain: short (5 mm), medium (6 mm), long (7 mm); short-grain types of the japonica type have short straw, whereas long-grain types of the indica type usually have taller and weaker stems; rice is a short-day plant; rice growing was the key for the development of Asiatic civilizations and certain African cultures; Asiatic species of rice appear to have diverse origins and to be derived from a complex in which Oryza rufipogon and O. nivara play a major role; African species are believed to have been domesticated from O. barthii; based on the average genetic distance among all the strains of common wild rices and cultivated rice for nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, the variability of the nuclear genome was found to be higher than that of the mitochondrial genome; the global pattern based on all genomes shows much more diversification in wild rice than that in cultivated rice; rice remains, along with wheat, the main staple diet of humans, especially in high density area in hot and wet tropical and subtropical areas; the annual production is about 500 Mio tons; with about 450 millions nucleotides rice carries the smallest genome among the cereals; the estimated number of genes is between 42.000 and 63.000; the mean gene size is about 4.500 nucleotides in indica rice; variations between genes mainly arose via sequence duplications (~ 70 % of the genes); there is a high gene homoeology and synteny to wheat , maize and barley genes; the complete genome was sequenced for the first time in 2002 by scientists of the Chinese Genomics Institute, Beijing (China) in collaboration with the University of Washington (USA); Oryza sativa (Gramineae), 2n = 2x, AA = 24, 2C DNA content 0.8-1.0 pg = 420-460 Mb; completely sequenced with genome length of about 30,900,000 bps; a wild rice, O. grandiglumis, shows 2n = 48, CCDD agr >>> Tables 15, 32, 48, 49 >>> Japanese ricetp://

rice bean: a self-pollinating Old World tropical bean that is eaten with rice, or in place of rice, in the Far East, Vigna umbellata (Leguminosae) >>> pulse

ricegrass: Oryzopsis miliacea (Gramineae) agr

rice-paper plant: Tetrapanax papyriferum (Araliaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort

rivet wheat: Triticum turgidum (Gramineae) agr >>> wheat

rocket >>> rocket salad

rocket (salad) - Rauke f: mustard species cultivated around the Mediterranean Sea, Asia Minor and Northwest India; it was already grown since the Greek and Roman time as pharmaceutical and salad plant; the name rocket is used for at least 20 species of herbs (corn rocket, Bunias erucago; cress rocket, Carrichteria annua; dame's rocket, Hesperis matronalis; dyer's rocket, Reseda luteola; Eastern rocket, Sisymbrium orientale; French rocket, Sisymbrium erysimoides; garden rocket, Eruca vesicaria ssp. sativa; garden rocket, Hesperis matronalis; hairy rocket, Erucastrum gallicum; London rocket, Sisymbrium irio; perennial rocket, Sisymbrium strictissimum; prairie rocket, Erysimum asperum; purple rocket, Iodanthus pinnatifidus; salad rocket, Eruca vesicaria ssp. sativa; sea rocket, Cakile spp.; scented rocket, Hesperis matronalis; sky rocket, Hesperis matronalis; small-flowered rocket, Erysimum inconspicuum; sweet rocket, Hesperis matronalis; tall rocket, Sisymbrium altissimum; >>> Turkish rocket, Bunias orientalis; wall rocket, Diplotaxis tenuifolia; water rocket, Rorippa sylvestris; white rocket, Diplotaxis erucoides; wild rocket, Diplotaxis tenuifolia;  yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris), mostly members of the mustard family Brassicaceae; these species vary from well known and widely cultivated to obscure and rarely or never grown; they share in common a distinctive zesty or sharp flavor, that is akin to mustard or horseradish; from rocket to rocket the flavor varies; one of these plants is grown mainly for its beauty (Hesperis matronalis); the rest are considered edible salad herbs, wild or cultivated (Brassicaceae) agr hort

rock maple >>> sugar maple

rocoto: Capsicum pubescens (Solanaceae), 2n = 2x = 24 hort

Roegneria ciliaris (Gramineae); 2n = 4x = 28 (ScScYcYc) is reported to be a potential source of resistance to wheat scab bot agr

Roman salad >>> cos lettuce

roquette >>> rocket salad

rose - Rose f: Rosa ssp. (Rosaceae) hort >>> Picture

roselle: Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) hort

rosemary - Rosmarin m: Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) hort

rubber (tree) - Gummibaum m: Hevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae), 2n = 2x = 36 fore

runch: Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae) bot agr

runner bean >>> kidney bean

Russian dandelion: Scorzonera tau-saghyz (Compositae) hort

Russian wildrye: a drought tolerant, cool-season forage grass used in seeded pastures in the Northern Great Plains of USA where water often limits production; seedling vigor is generally poor in diploid cultivars, but tetraploid germplasm has improved seedling vigor, Psathyrostachys juncea (Gramineae) bot agr

rutabaga >>> Swede

ruzigrass: Brachiaria ruziziensis (Poaceae), 2n = 4x = 36 agr >>> palisadegrass

rye - Roggen m: a cereal, which played a major role in the feeding of European populations throughout the Middle Age owing to its considerable winter hardiness; the cultivated rye resulted from crossbreeding between Secale vavilovii and the perennial species, S. anatolicum and S. montanum; it was domesticated rather late having evolved primitively as weeds among the cereals cultivated earlier; the world production amounts about 30 Mio tons; it is mainly used in bakery for black bread, in confectionery for gingerbread, blinis etc. or for the production of rye whiskey; hybrid rye is widely grown in Germany, Poland, and other European countries, Secale cereale (Gramineae), 2n = 2x, RcerRcer = 14, 2C DNA content 18.9 pg = 8000 Mb agr >>> ergot >>> trisomics >>> translocation tester set >>> pentosan >>> Pictures 005, 006 >>> Tables 15, 32, 35, 48 >>> SCHLEGEL (2006) gene map

rye brome: Bromus secalinus (Gramineae) bot agr

ryegrass >>> perennial ryegrass

© by R. Schlegel 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Free counter and web stats