Rye is a cereal, which played a major role in the feeding of European populations throughout the Middle Ages owing to its considerable
winter hardiness. Recently the world production amounts about 30 Mio tons. The cultivated rye resulted from crossbreeding between Secale vavilovii and the perennial species, S. anatolicum and S. montanum.
It is part of the quite young cultivated plants. It is called a secondary crop, which originated as a weed in emmer and barley fields of the Near East. First cultivation began in Persia, Central
Anatolia and north of Black Sea region about 3,000 years ago. The domestication probably happened at several locations but, presumably, within the general area defined below. Rye grains found in
Neolithic sites in Austria and Poland are considered to be of "wild" origin. The earliest seed finds of cultivated rye in central Europe came from Hallstatt period 1,000-500 BC. From there
the cropping of rye moved northwest toward Sweden from 2,500 to 2,000 BC. During the 16th century rye cultivation subsequently increased, and at the beginning of the 20th century it succeeded even wheat in acreage...
Since the first description of a mutant with forked spikes in 1757 there is a tremendous progress in rye genetics.
Thus, we can estimate 250 Years Genetic Studies in Rye (361, 362).