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(Secale cereale L.)

11th UPDATED INVENTORY  1986...2021

Version 01.21

R. Schlegel1 & V. Korzun2

1Gatersleben (Germany) and 2KWS SAAT SE & Co. KGaA, Einbeck (Germany)


Rye is a cereal, which played a major role in the feeding of European populations throughout the Middle Ages owing to its considerable winter hardiness. Recently the world production amounts about 30 Mio tons. The cultivated rye resulted from crossbreeding between Secale vavilovii and the perennial species, S. anatolicum and S. montanum. It is part of the quite young cultivated plants. It is called a secondary crop, which originated as a weed in emmer and barley fields of the Near East. First cultivation began in Persia, Central Anatolia and north of Black Sea region about 3,000 years ago. The domestication probably happened at several locations but, presumably, within the general area defined below. Rye grains found in Neolithic sites in Austria and Poland are considered to be of "wild" origin. The earliest seed finds of cultivated rye in central Europe came from Hallstatt period 1,000-500 BC. From there the cropping of rye moved northwest toward Sweden from 2,500 to 2,000 BC. During the 16th century rye cultivation subsequently increased, and at the beginning of the 20th century it succeeded even wheat in acreage...

Since the first description of a mutant with forked spikes in 1757 there is a tremendous progress in rye genetics. Thus, we can estimate 250 Years Genetic Studies in Rye  (361, 362).

Facsimile of  “Der  mehrblütige Roggen  - Eine Pflanzenkulturstudie” by Benno Martiny (1870) , Verl. A. W. Kasemann, Danzig

Based on compilation of about 400 literature references from rye, triticale, wheat-rye additions, translocations, and substitutions, a comprehensive presentation of gene designations, localization, linkage relationships and physical mapping has been established. Since the last update in 1998 (384) there was a significant increase of results, mostly gained by latest molecular studies. More than 750 genes and markers are available for the entire genome. Several genes and DNA markers could be associated with defined chromosomal segments, resulting in a physical map. It is represented by designated bands57 or chromosomal regions of the karyogram together with the appropriate loci. Altogether more than 4,100 loci and/or markers were considered, as compared to about 720 during the update in 1998. Their linkage values and orders along each of the seven chromosomes are given in several tables. Meanwhile over 3,150 linkage values were determined. Chromosome 1R is the linkage group that is best investigated. It is mainly due to the study and utilization of the 1B/1R translocation in wheat. The 1RS chromosome arm has been a subject of numerous experiments. However, an permanent increase of genetic data was also achieved by recombination studies on rye itself.

   Copyright  R. Schlegel   &   V. Korzun    2004  2005  2006  2007  2008  2009  2010  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015  2016  2017 2018 2019 2020 2021