Icon RS 2015

1) “Bobwhite” is a generic name that refers to all sister lines derived from the cross CM 33203 with the pedigree Aurora//Kalyan/Bluebird/3/Woodpecker made by  the CIMMYT bread wheat program in the early 1970s. Individual sister lines can  be distinguished by their unique selection history. One of the parents, Aurora,  contains the 1BL.1RS translocation from rye, and approximately 85% of the  sister lines have inherited the translocation. The sister lines demonstrate  great variability for agronomic traits such as maturity, height, grain color,  reaction to leaf rust, stem rust, yellow rust, Septoria leaf blotch and powdery  mildew.

2) The commercialized strain of “Mv Emma” does not carry 1RS.1BL translocation. From the early maintenance breeding strains the  translocation was subsequnetly eliminated (pers. comm. by Dr. L. Lang, Martonvasar, Hungary, 2008)

3) Chromosome 1R of rye is a useful source of genes for disease resistance and enhanced agronomic performance in wheat. One of the most prevalent genes transferred to wheat from rye is the stem rust resistance gene Sr31. The recent emergence and spread of a stem rust pathotype virulent to this gene has refocused efforts to find and utilize alternative sources of resistance. There has been considerable effort to transfer a stem rust resistance gene, SrR, from Imperial rye, believed to be allelic to Sr31, into commercial wheat cultivars. However, the simultaneous transfer of genes at the Sec-1 locus encoding secalin seed storage proteins and their association with quality defects preclude the deployment of SrR in some commercial wheat breeding programs. Previous attempts to induce homoeologous recombination between wheat and rye chromosomes to break the linkage between SrR and Sec-1 whilst retaining the tightly linked major loci for wheat seed storage proteins, Gli-D1 and Glu-D3, and recover good dough quality characteristics, have been unsuccessful. Novel tertiary wheat-rye recombinant lines were produced carrying different lengths of rye chromosome arm 1RS by inducing homoeologous recombination between the wheat 1D chromosome and a previously described secondary wheat-rye recombinant, DRA-1.Tertiary recombinant T6-1 (SrR+Sec-1-) carries the target gene for stem rust resistance from rye and retains Gli-D1 but lacks the secalin locus. The tertiary recombinant T49-7 (SrR-Sec-1+) contains the secalin locus but lacks the stem rust resistance gene. T6-1 is expected to contribute to wheat breeding programs in Australia, whereas T49-7 provides opportunities to investigate whether the presence of secalins is responsible for the previously documented dough quality defects.

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4) There is also a sister line showing no translocation. It was used as control in drought stress studies. The translocation line has higher root-and shoot dry weight in both treatments and an increased root/shoot ratio, which was more than the sister line in dry treatment (69 and 38%, respectively). The larger root biomass of the 1RS translocation line contributes to an increased HI and WUE under drought that resulted in less yield decrease (23 and 32%, respectively).

5) A diminutive "midget" chromosome was found in plants containing a wheat nuclear genome with a substituted rye cytoplasm. This cytoplasmic substituted line arose during successive backcrossing of a wheat/rye amphiploid to wheat as the recurrent male parent. SOUTHERN and in situ hybridization with a dispersed repeat sequence specific for rye, R173, indicates that the midget chromosome originates from within the rye genome. Various DNA markers previously mapped to group 1 chromosomes of wheat and barley were used to trace the origin of the midget chromosome from within the rye genome. Ten short arm and 36 long arm probes were used and one marker was identified, which hybridizes to the midget chromosome and maps to the proximal region of the long arm of chromosome 1R. An additional marker was generated from a genomic library of the line containing the midget chromosome. This also maps to the long arm of 1R. The results indicate that the midget chromosome contains a small segment of the long arm of chromosome 1R.

6) M. SCHRIBAUX bred on the French experimental station “Cappelle” new wheats derived from crosses of “Krelof” wheat (from Sahara oasis) x “iI” (Rieti x Epi carè x Inversable); he expected great benefit for French agriculture because of kryptic disease resistance and high yields (210)

7) In western European wheats, resistance genes from the French wheat “VPM1” wereintroduced, they are possessing chromosomal translocations from Aegilops ventricosa and thus resistance to rusts, eyespot and nematodes; the the VPM1 line derives from the cross Ae. ventricosa x T. persicum (T. turgidum var. carthlicum)// 3*Marne (T. aestivum) (212)

8) A different type of 1AL.1RS* translocation as compared to the “Amigo” type (223)

9) Six wheat cultivars reported to have 1B/1R wheat-rye translocations and, presumably, Yr9, and two rye cultivars were inoculated with four races of Puccinia striiformis ssp. tritici and tested with 9 of the 16 RGAP markers. Results of these tests indicate that “Clement”, “Aurora”, §Lovrin 10”, “Lovrin 13”, and “Riebesel 47/51” have Yr9 and that “Weique” does not have Yr9. The 1B/1R translocations of “Benno”, “Perseus”, “Kavkaz” and “Avrora” were not distinguished from the 1B/1R substitutions of the wheat strains “W565/52”, “Salzmünde 14/33” and “Weique-Substitution”. “Consul”, “Maris Huntsman”, “Stella” and “Weique” possessed a capacity for partial fertility restoration but only “Professeur Marchal” was capable of restoring fertility completely and even within this variety lines and sublines differed in this respect.

Data on pairing of “Weique Züchter”, which has a deviant 1B-1R chromosome lacking the telomeric band on the long arm, showed that this chromosome can pair with 1RS and 1BL.

The high quality cv “Ferdinand” had a complete 1B/1R substitution and thus lacked the low molecular weight glutenins on 1BS and the high molecular weight glutenins on 1BL, and apart from the old German cv. “Weique”, is the only substitution cultivar known to date.

10) Revealed by monosomic analysis, i.e., homoeologous recombination for hairy peduncle, brown spike, and red grains

11) Two winter alleles of Vrn-A1 were recently found in wheat cultivars adapted to the Great Plains of the USA. Using a diagnostic marker for a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 4, which distinguishes the alleles, the allele in the Great Plains cultivar ‘Jagger’ was common in Australian and CIMMYT cultivars, but ‘Veery’ cultivars carried the alternate allele from their Russian ancestor, which was the same as the allele in the Great Plains cultivar ‘Wichita’. The ‘Wichita’ allele was in North American winter cultivars, and chromosome substitution lines with a high level of tolerance to freezing, but not in substitution lines with a lower level of tolerance. The SNP between the alleles alters the predicted Vrn-A1 protein sequence, and this potentially explains differences in freezing tolerance. We suggest that these winter alleles could be coded as Vrn-A1v for the ‘Jagger’ allele and Vrn-A1w for the ‘Wichita’ allele. Cultivars with the spring Vrn-A1a or Vrn-A1b alleles carried the same SNP allele as ‘Jagger’, suggesting that the mutation from winter to spring for these alleles occurred in a Vrn-A1v genotype. (Quelle: DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0523.2011.01856.x)

12) Details http://www.wheatpedigree.net/sort/show/82753

13) Details http://www.wheatpedigree.net/sort/show/4124

14) Details http://www.wheatpedigree.net/sort/show/5312

15) Details http://www.wheatpedigree.net/sort/show/7296

16) Datails http://www.wheatpedigree.net/sort/show/84050

17) Details http://www.wheatpedigree.net/sort/show/7649

18) Details http://www.wheatpedigree.net/sort/show/8146

19) Details http://genbank.vurv.cz/wheat/pedigree/krizeni2.asp?id=59850

20) Details http://genbank.vurv.cz/wheat/pedigree/krizeni2.asp?id=59890

21) There is an additional reciprocal translocation between chromosome 5B and 7B of wheat

22) Translocated experimental line based on a selected  variety or breeding strain, i.e., without sponateous translocation but more or less targeted introgression (cf. Figure 2)

23) C-banding revealed that the varieties Omskaya 37, Omskaya 38, Omskaya 41, in addition to wheat-rye translocation 1RS.1BL possess wheat-wheatgrass translocation 7DL-7Ai, where a segment of chromosome 7Ai of Agropyron elongatum (=Thinopyrum elongatum) is translocated to the long arm of wheat chromosome 7D. It is known that 1RS carries the genes Lr26, Sr31, Pm8, Yr9, while a translocation from Thinopyrum elongatum – genes Lr19 and Sr25 (McIntosh et al. 1995). Molecular analyses revealed that in the varieties Omskaya 37, Omskaya 38, Omskaya 41 resistance to leaf rust is determined by genes Lr26 + Lr19, to stem rust – Sr25, Sr31. Varieties carrying Lr19 gene were introduced into Volga region of Russia in the late 1980s. Resistance controlled by Lr19 was defeated at the end of 1990s due to broad cultivation of varieties with this gene in Volga regions (Sibikeev et al., 2011). However, combination of genes Lr19+Lr26 protects plants against leaf rust pathogen. Moreover, the gene Sr25 ensures high level of protection against Ug99 race (Singh et al. 2008).

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A compendium of reciprocal translocation in wheat

24) Fusarium head blight caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum syn. Gibberella zeae is an important disease of bread wheat worldwide. The  perennial grass Elymus tsukushiensis thrives in the warm and humid  regions of China and Japan and is immune the fungus.The transfer and  mapping of a major gene Fhb6 from E. tsukushiensis to wheat was made.  Fhb6 gene was mapped to the subterminal region in the short arm of  chromosome 1Ets#1S of E. tsukushiensis. Chromosome engineering was used  to replace corresponding homoeologous region of chromosome 1AS of wheat  with the Fhb6 locus associated chromatin derived from 1Ets#1S of E.  tsukushiensis

25) Four homozygous Chinese Spring (CS)–D. villosum translocation lines containing different fragments of chromosome 2V were characterized from a pool, including 76 translocations that occur in chromosomes 1V through 7V of D. villosum by both molecular markers and cytogenetic analysis. A rough physical map of 2V was developed which included nine markers in three segments of the short arm and ten markers in the long arm. The photoperiod response gene of D. villosum (Ppd-V1) was physically mapped to the FL 0.33–0.53 region of 2VS, while the gene controlling bristles on the glume ridges (Bgr-V1) was mapped to 2VS FL 0.00–0.33. A novel compensating Triticum aestivum–D. villosum Robertsonian translocation line T2VS·2DL (NAU422) with good plant vigor and full fertility was further characterized by sequential genomic in situ hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization and the use of molecular markers. Compared to its recurrent parent CS and three other translocation lines, the T2VS·2DL translocation line has longer spikes, more spikelets and more grains per spike in two season years, which suggested that the alien segment may carry yield-related genes of D. villosum.

26) Susceptable to wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella)

27) Resistant to wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), marker on chromosome 6DS

28) Wheat blast disease, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae), produces severe damage to wheat production in South America. It was observed that many resistant cultivars contain the 2NS/2AS translocation from Triticum ventricosum. The presence of the 2NS/2AS translocation is evident in 57 advanced breeding lines and one variety ‘Caninde 1’ from Paraguayan wheat germplasm, using VENTRIUP-LN2 primers. The germplasm ‘Caninde 1 and 22’ of the breeding lines, found positive for the presence of 2NS/2AS translocation, were inoculated with a single aggressive Magnaporthe pathotype P14-039, to assess their response to wheat blast infection under controlled conditions. Based on the disease infection score, ten of the breeding lines, ‘Caninde 1’ and ‘Milan’ (positive control), were classified as resistant. Three of the remaining breeding lines were classified as moderately resistant, five as moderately susceptible and other four as susceptible. The results show that the expression of 2NS/2AS-based blast resistance is more dependent on genetic background of the inserted germplasm than previously envisioned.

29) At the adult stage, WR35 exhibited high levels of resistance to the powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) pathogens prevalent in China, and a highly virulent isolate of Rhizoctonia cerealis, the cause of wheat sharp eyespot. At the seedling stage, it was highly resistant to 22 of 23 Bgt isolates and four Pst races. Based on its disease responses to different pathogen isolates, WR35 may possess resistance gene(s) for powdery mildew, stripe rust and sharp eyespot, which differed from the known resistance genes from rye. In addition, WR35 was cytologically stable and produced high kernel number per spike. Therefore, WR35 with multi-disease resistances and desirable agronomic traits should serve as a promising bridging parent for wheat chromosome engineering breeding

30) Line 179 exhibited improved spike morphology traits, resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, as well as higher tillering capacity, fertility and dietary fiber (arabynoxylan) content than the parental wheat genotype. Comparative analyses based on molecular cytogenetic methods and molecular (SSR and DArTseq) makers indicate that the 1RS arm of line 179 is a recombinant of S. cereale and S. strictum homologues, and approximately 16% of its loci were different from that of ‘Petkus’ origin. 162 (69.5%) 1RS-specific markers were associated with genes, including 10 markers with putative disease resistance functions and LRR domains found on the subtelomeric or pericentromeric regions of 1RS.

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Rolf Schlegel

Figure 3: Somatic chromosome spread of  diploid rye (Secale cereale) with 2n = 2x = 14, after C-banding

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